OXI ! NO !
Cyprus community leaders never agreed to any form of bi-zonal federation
According to the High-Level Agreements shown below what was agreed to by the leaders of both communities in 1977 and 1979 was the creation of a bi-communal federal republic and not the bi-zonal confederal system that was proposed by the Annan plan. This observation is substantiated by newly published British government documents which show that the High-Level Agreements reflect a plan proposed by Henry Kissinger and agreed to by the Turkish foreign minister Gunes in order to allow the Turkish Cypriots to have control of 6 municipal authorities or cantons within Cyprus and in all other respects these new municipalities were to form part of a Cypriot constitutional system based on that of a single unitary state with a system of government based on majority rule.
The idea of bi-zonality runs contrary to both of the High-Level Agreements and is an invention of the former UN Secretary General Boutros Ghali in his Set of Ideas, which were based on the British policy of partition and were subsequently rejected by both sides upon publication. Since the High-Level Agreements guarantee against any process leading to any form of partition or secession, they strictly forbid bi-zonality. In the case of former Yugoslavia its constituent states were eventually able to secede from the union in direct violation of constitutional law so a system of constituent states as envisaged by Kofi Annan is a fundamental threat to Cyprus unity and territorial integrity. Cyprus cannot be split up into two constituent states or zones based on community affiliation since one of these would always be able to succeed despite the constitution forbidding it.
A bi-communal federal republic envisages a system of government where both communities take part in governace in proportion to their numbers and where no minimum quotas based on religion, community affiliation or geographic locality exit in any government, military, judicial or civilian organs of power or in the decision making process, and where the federal government devolves a small amount of power to its cantons. In all other respects a bi-communal federal republic is governed as a single unitary state.
The Annan plan claims that it is modelled on the Swiss system of government but in the Swiss Confederation there are 23 cantons that have been created in such a way so that no one language group in one canton can be dominated by any other language group. The Annan plan on the other hand seeks to create two constituent states one of which occupies 29% of the land in the north where the Greek Cypriots would make up 90% of the population if they all returned, thus they will always be in the majority. The Annan plan therefore totally contradicts of the basis of the Swiss model, which Annan claims to have based it on. The Swiss system is not even a federation but something much weaker and therefore incompatible with the High-Level Agreements to begin with.
Based on population maps of the occupied areas there is a basis for the creation of up to 15 Turkish Cypriot minority cantons where the Turkish Cypriots will be in the majority, and which will enable the Greek Cypriot majority outside of these areas to be in control of their own affairs. In order for these cantons to fit within the existing Cypriot District boundaries this number could be increased to 19.
Since the Greek Cypriots make up 90% of the population 171 Greek Cypriot cantons or counties must be created in order balance the 19 Turkish Cypriot minority cantons out (or 135:15 cantons). In the case of the Kissinger proposal which the High-Level Agreements are based on only 6 Turkish Cypriot counties would be created.
The map below shows the boundaries of the 15 Turkish Cypriot cantons which if created would fulfil what the High-Level Agreements envisaged. All other land in Cyprus where Greek Cypriots form the majority would come under Greek Cypriot control.
MAKARIOS - DENKTASH HIGH - LEVEL
AGREEMENT FEBRUARY 1977
The guidelines provided that the aim would be:
1.. An independent non-aligned bi-communal federal Republic.
2.. The territory under the administration of each community should be
discussed in the light of economic viability and productivity and land
3.. Questions of principles like freedom of movement, freedom of
settlement, the right of property and other specific matters are open for
discussion, taking into consideration the fundamental basis of a bi-communal
federal system and certain practical difficulties which may arise for the
Turkish Cypriot community.
4.. The powers and functions of the central federal government will be
such as to safeguard the unity of the country, having regard to the
bi-communal character of the state.
THE 10 - POINT AGREEMENT OF 19 MAY 1979
Following is the text of the agreement between the president of the
Republic, Mr Kyprianu and the Turkish Cypriot leader, Mr Denktash, concluded
on 19 May 1979 during a meeting under the auspices of the UN
Secretary-General Dr Waldheim:
1.. It was agreed to resume the inter-communal talks on 15 June 1979.
2.. The basis of the talks will be the Makarios-Denktash guidelines of 12
February 1977 and the UN resolutions relevant to the Cyprus Question.
3.. There should be respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for
all citizens of the Republic.
4.. The talks will deal with all territorial and constitutional aspects.
5.. Priority will be given to reaching agreement on the resettlement of
Varosha under UN auspices simultaneously with the beginning of the
consideration by the interlocutors of the constitutional and territorial
aspects of a comprehensive settlement. After agreement on Varosha has been
reached it will be implemented without awaiting the outcome of the
discussion on other aspects of the Cyprus problem.
6.. It was agreed to abstain from any action which might jeopardise the
outcome of the talks, and special importance will be given to the initial
practical measures by both sides to promote goodwill, mutual confidence and
the return to normal conditions.
7.. The demilitarisation of the Republic of Cyprus is envisaged, and
matters relating thereto will be discussed.
8.. The independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-alignment
of the Republic should be adequately guaranteed against union in whole or in
part with any other country and against any form of partition or secession.
9.. The inter-communal talks will be carried out in a continuing and
sustained manner, avoiding any delay.
10.. The inter-communal talks will take place in Nicosia.
OXI ! NO !
to the Annan Plan