The Turkish Holocaust


Chronological Index

1878 March. Berlin Congress.

1878 June 4. Turkey sells Cyprus to England.

1879 Kurdish revolt at Badinan by Obeydalla.

1894 September - 1896 August. Sultan Abdul Hamit applies the policy of genocide to the Armenians.

In August and September 1894, Armenians are slain in Sassun.

In October 1895 takes place the first organized genocide in Constantinople and Trebizond and in November and December 1895 the authorities organized a great massacre throughout the country.

In June 1896, the massacre of Van takes place.

After the capture by the Armenians in 26-8-1896 of the Ottoman Bank, another massacre takes place in Constantinople. Total number of victims is 300000.

1896 May 12. Murders of Greeks and conflicts between Greeks and Turks in the island of Crete.

1909 end of March. New massacres of the Armenians organized by the New - Turks at Adana, Tarsus and other towns of Cilicia. Victims are 30000 Armenians and some American missionaries.

1909 Revolution of the Arabs in Yemen is suppressed in bloodshed by the New - Turks.

1911 October 1. Assassination of Emilianos, Bishop of Grevena by the Turks.

1912 Kurdish uprising in Mardin under Bedirhan and H. Remo, and in Bitlis under Seyh Selim.

1912. The Turkish army in retreat from East Thrace loots the villages of Didymotichon and Adrianopoli districts. Villages of the Malgara district are burnt. The same happens in Kessani. Assassinations and massacres accompany the destruction and looting in this predominantly Greek region.

1913 February. The Turkish authorities compel the Greek inhabitants of the district of village Crithea to leave their village in East Thrace. A brutal looting follows.

1913. The reoccupation of Eastern Thrace by the Turkish army leads to atrocities and massacres o f Greeks. 15690 are the victims of these massacres. In the regions of Malgara and Charioupoli many villages are also destroyed. Massacres were followed by looting.

1914 February 8. The Dutch Westerneck and the Norwegian Hoft are appointed as General Inspectors of the Armenian provinces.

1914 May 25 .The Greek Orthodox (Ecumenical) Patriarcate protests for the persecution of Christians and commands all churches and schools to be closed.

1914 May 27. The Turkish authorities at Pergamum command all Christian population to leave the town within two hours. The terrorized inhabitants take refuge in the Greek island of Mytilini.

1914 May - June. The Turkish authorities enforce all kinds of persecutions in the Greek regions of West Asia Minor. The coast of Asia Minor is devastated. In Erythrea and Phocaia the massacres of Greeks are merciless.

1914 July. The General Inspectors of the Armenian provinces arrive in Constantinople. Mr. Hoft arrives at Van.

1914 July - August. The Turkish government creates «the forced labor battalions». It is a new scheme for extermination of the Greeks - Ottoman citizens - drafted in the Turkish army. By this method of the "forced labor battalions» 400000 Greeks were exterminated by hunger, hardship, maltreatment and deprivation.

1914 September. The Turks declare persecution against the Greek inhabitants of the Makri region of the South - West Asia Minor. Many are killed. Persecution is followed by plunders, violations and robberies.

1914 November. By order of the Turkish government many villages of Eastern Thrace where there was a great majority of Greek population are forcibly evacuated (Neochorio, Galatas, Callipoli etc..) Plunder of houses and shops follows. Thousands fled from their ancestral homes to Greece.

1914 November - December. By order of the Turkish government, the region of Visii and part of the Saranda Eklisiae is evacuated. 19000 Greeks are exiled in Anatolia and their properties looted. According to the Ecumenical Patriarchate records, 119,940 Greeks were expelled from East Thrace.

1914 January - December. More than 250000 Greeks are exiled from East Thrace and Smyrna's region. The properties of the exiled are detained.

1914. During this year Turkish persecutions against the Greeks are hardened. The Ecumenical Patriarchate strongly protests. Talbot bye the Minister of internal affairs visits the pro-vinces to examine the complaints, but the persecutions are intensified because the minister in collaboration with the local authorities renders them more systematic.

1915 April. Arrests in great numbers of Armenian intellectuals and prominent national Armenian leaders in Constantinople and the provinces. They are deported in Anatolia and are slain on the road. The Armenian soldiers of the Turkish army are disarmed and massacred by thousands. The Armenian population is exiled to the Syrian desert and massacred by tens of thousands, slain by the Turkish army, the irregulars and the civilians or left to die of hunger and maltreatment 1,500,000. Armenians are the victims of Turkish ferocity.

1915 June 13. "The formal declaration" of the Armenian extermination is published by the Ottoman government.

1915 September 16. A secret telegram to the Allepo District Command orders: "You have knowledge that the government has decided the thorough extermination of the Armenian population living in Turkey. Everyone who has a contrary opinion cannot continue to be a member of the State administration. There must be an end to their existence without any mercy for the women, children and invalid persons regardless of the awful means of extermination. Minister of Internal Affairs Talaat bey». You are not wrong. It is an order of the Turkish government addressed to Turks who are supposed to belong to the human race. Every comment is unnecessary.

1915. The Turks begin a fierce persecution against the Syrian Orthodox and Nestorians living in Hakkari, Mardin and Midyat regions. Though not well known, this persecution equals that of the Armenians. One of the first victims was Adai Ser Archbishop of Sert. General massacres and full destruction were its characteristics. The annihilation was almost completed till the end of World War I.

1916. Destruction of the region Riseou - Platanou of Pontus. Plunder of the towns Ofis, Sourmena and Gemoura. The looting organized by the Ottoman State officials took place under the leadership of Ahmet bey and that of field marshal Velip pacha.

1916. The Turks compel the inhabitants of different regions of Pontus to immigrate to Sivas. Only 550 survived out of 16,750 inhabitants of the Elevi and Tripoli regions. Of the 49,520 inhabitants of Trebizont only 20.300 saved their lives, 1916 December 27. All prominent of Amissos and 4000 Greeks, inhabitants of the town are arrested and deported to Anatolia.

1917 March 10. Adil Bey, deputy of Lebanon in the Ottoman Parliament declared officially that only in Lebanon and Syria, 144,000 persons died of hunger purposely provoked by the Turkish administration.

1917 Spring. The deportation of 23000 Greeks, inhabitants of Cydoniae is ordered by the Turks

1917 November. 400 Greek families are expelled from the S.W. Asia Minor by the Turks. Their properties are looted.

1918 January 8. The president of U.S.A. Wilson declares the principle of self - determination for all the peoples oppressed by Turkey.

1918 April. Another 8000 Greek families are expelled from S.W. Asia Minor.

1918 May 28. After the victory of the Armenians over the Turkish army, the independence of Armenia is proclaimed.

1918 June 4. After several months of fighting the Armenians have fought alone against Turkey, the treaty of Batum is signed by which Turkey recognizes the Independent Armenian Republic.

1919 June 4. After 5 years of exile the inhabitants of Pergamum return home.

1919 June 25. The French premier Clemenceau says for the Armenian massacres: «The whole history has not to show another example of such organized hideous acts».

1920 January 19. The Supreme Allied Council recognizes the independence of Armenia.

1920. Chryssanthos, Bishop of Trebizond is condemned to death in absentio by the Court Martial of Ankara. The Bishop of Zilon is condemned and dies in jail.

1920 August 10. Signature of the treaty of Sevres providing an independent Armenia, self determination for Kurdistan and liberation of East Thrace and Smyrna's territory, according to the president Wilson declaration for self - determination of all peoples of Asia Minor.

1920 September. Kemalist Turkey attacks Armenia. The Armenians fight desperately against the Turkish army. Finally the Armenians succumbed on 2 - 12 - 1920. The Turkish victory is followed by a general massacre of the Armenians and the annexation of one half of the independent Armenia to Turkey..

1920 November 22. The arbitration of President of U.S.A. Wilson on the turco - Armenian frontiers is submitted.

1921 June 3. Kemalists arrest 1320 Greeks, prominent inhabitants of Samsus. The next day they kill 701. The dead are buried in common graves behind the house of Hekir Pacha. The rest are exiled in the interior of Anatolia.

1922 August 24. The Turkish army seizes Pergamum. The Greek citizens flee to save their lives.

1922 September 9. The Turks enter Smyrna. The city is set on fire. Wild massacres of Greeks and Armenians take place. The victims count about 150000 persons.

1922 October. After the evacuation of East Thrace by the Greek army, 300000 Greeks are compelled to leave their country, where their ancestors have lived for thousands of years.

19141922 October. It is estimated that during these 8 years, the Greek nation has suffered by the Turks:

  • Massacres. More than 150.000 Greeks of the Pontus region and more than 1400000 Greeks of Asia Minor have perished by massacres, shooting, hanging, hunger and inhuman and criminal maltreatment by Turks.
  • Refugees. It is estimated that more than 1.700.000 Greeks were saved from the Turkish murderous frenzy as refugees. 1400000 of them came to Greece from East Thrace, Asia Minor and Pontus. About 200.000 went to Russia from Pontus and the rest were dispersed all over the world.

All these persons left their fatherland, after more than 3000 years, during which their ancestors have continuously lived in these regions, chased by the Turks, newcomers in Asia Minor.

1924 July 10. Kurdish revolt of Nasturi in Hakkari. It was suppressed by the 7th Turkish Army corps after 79 days 36 villages were destroyed 12 others were leveled down to the earth.

1925 March 3. The great Kurdish revolution bursts out at Elazig under Seyh - Sait 10.000 Kurds seize Harput and attack Diyarbakir, the Capital of Kurdistan After the complete destruction of 48 villages, the,revolution was suppressed at 7/10/1927 drowned in Kurdish blood.

1926 May 16. Mount Agri Kurdish revolt takes place. The rebels caught prisoner, the 28th Turkish infantry division. The revolt after being spread to the regions of Hakkari, Siirt and Mardin, was suppressed after fierce fights with more powerful forces at 17/7/1926.

1927 May 30. A great Kurdish revolution in Diyarbakir and Agri under Seyh Enver. It was suppressed after violent fights at 7/10/1927. 2000 Kurdish fighters were killed. For many days the waters of Murat river were turned red by the blood of the slain Kurdish fighters.

1928. Two Kurdish uprisings took place. The first under Resul Aga at Siirt, and the second under Ali Can. Accurate information lacking, owing to Martial Law.

1930 June 2. Kurdish uprising at Agri region. It was suppressed at 18 - 9 - 30.

1930 August 31. Turkish newspaper Milliet publishes a declaration of Premier Ismet Inonu «Only the Turkish nation has the right to have national claims in this country. No other element has such a right».

1930 September 30. Turkish paper Milliet publishes a statement of the Turkish minister of Justice:

«The Turk is the only master in his country. Those who are not pure Turks have one right in this country: The right to be servants, the right to be slaves». This is the way Turkey understands the human rights and behaves to the minorities of Armenians, Greeks, Syrians and Kurds. Even today 12 million Kurds have not a school, their language, their music and dances are prohibited, their leaders persecuted and the Kurdish people killed.

1935. A Kurdish uprising under Buban in Bitlis and in Siirt under Abdul Rahman takes place.

1937. A Kurdish revolution under Seyh Risa, bursts at Dersim. Details are not known because of the severe censorship by turkish authorities.

1937 May 23. The Turkish government forbids the edition of the newspaper of Constantinople Son Telegraph, because it has referred to the Kurdish sufferings.

1938 November 10. Death of Kemal Ataturk, the butcher of Kurds, Greeks and Armenians who saved his country from partition.

1941 May. Mobilization of 20 classes of the Greek and Armenian minorities living in Turkey and having Turkish citizenship, in order to exterminate them in the same manner, as they have already done during World War I, through the forced - labor battalions.

1942 November 11. The law of taxation on property of the non Muslims of Turkey (Varlik Vergisi) is voted. It is a hideous attempt of economic extermination of the Greek and Armenian communities, which were exposed undefended to the excesses and abuse of power by the Turkish economic authorities.

1955 September 6. The Turkish authorities organize a great pogrom against the Greeks of Constantinople. 29 Churches were burnt and 46 looted. The graves of the Ecumenical Patriarchs and Christian cemeteries were vandalized. Thousands of shops were destroyed. Hundreds of women raped. Vandalism's at a smaller scale have takes place in Smyrna.

1960 A military Coup takes place showing that the Armed Forces have always been and will always will be in charge of Turkey where there is no real Democracy.

1971 12 March. Another military Coup occurs which leaves the fascist military in power until 1973.

1974 July 20. The Turkish army invades the independent and armless island of Cyprus, member of U.N.O. and seizes the 40% of it, on pretext that this is necessary for the Turkish -Cypriot minority which equals 18% of the whole population.

1974 July - August. Despite the resolutions of the U.N. Security Council No 353, 357, 358, 359, 360 etc. which urged: «The withdrawal without delay from the Republic of Cyprus of foreign military personnel». The invading Turkish forces have turned into a permanent occupation army, which for 25 years does not conform with the above resolutions, despises U.N.O., challenges every conscientious man of the World and undermines world peace.

1975 The Turkish occupation regime in north Cyprus declares it to be a "Federated Turkish State" in the face of UN condemnation. Out of the 200,000 original Greek Cypriot inhabitants who made up 82% of the population only 20,000 remain in enclaves, soon to dwindle in number to less than 600 through the deprivation of basic human rights including Freedom of Movement, Education and Medical Treatment.

1976 The 1st Report of the European Commission of Human Rights Turkey's invasion in Cyprus and aftermath (20 July 1974 - 18 May 1976) finds that Turkey is guilty of mass violations of the European Convention of Human Rights.

1978 The Turkish fascist state initiates a pogrom against Alevi-muslims all over Turkey. All over Turkey, Grey Wolves murder hundreds of people. The place where the most people are killed is Kahramanmaras. The repression and criminalisation of Alevi-muslims in Turkey, continous also in the present time

1978 December 25. Turkish fascists massacre hundreds of Kurds in Marash

1978 December 28. Proclamation of Martial Law in 15 provinces of Turkish Kurdistan prohibiting for 18 years now any information about the sufferings of the Kurdish people. The fascist government of Ankara hopes that they will achieve by force the submission of the enslaved peoples of Asia Minor. They hope they will continue to occupy the country of Armenia, Kurdistan, North Cyprus and the Greek fatherland of East Thrace and West Asia Minor. The future will prove how wrong they are. Every free and conscientious man of the world must help for that.

1980 September 12. Coup led by General Kenan Evren overthrows the governing MHP replacing one brand of fascism with yet another lasting until 1983.

1983. The 2nd Report of the European Commission of Human Rights Turkey's invasion in Cyprus and aftermath (19 May 1976 to 10 February 1983) finds that Turkey is guilty of further mass violations of the European Convention of Human Rights.

1983 November 15. The illegal Turkish puppet regime declares independence for the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC") in the occupied part of Cyprus which has now been systematically Ethnically Cleansed of over 200,000 indigenous Greek Cypriots. The "illegal" declaration is immediately "Deplored" by the UN Security Council which declares the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" "Legally Invalid" in Resolutions 541(1983) and 550 (1984) which also "Condemns" this and all other secessionist actions.

1984 Turkey begins a crackdown on Kurds seeking autonomy. In the following years many Kurdish Villages are razed to the ground and emptied of inhabitants who are moved to other parts of Turkey or forced to flee as refugees. Those who speak out against the Turkish regime are summarily imprisoned or assassinated.

1993 The Turkish brutalities against the Kurdish people continue and are stepped up. Turkey showing ABSOLUTELY NO RESPECT for international laws and agreements invades Northern Iraq in its attempt to butcher the Kurdish people

1995 Turkish soldiers from the Hakkari Mountain Commando Brigade slaughter and dismember the bodies of Kurdish resistance fighters. They then take photographs of themselves posing with the victims of their barbaric crime and sell them as trophies at $2 a piece.

1996 January 27. Turkish naval forces briefly invade and occupy the island of Imia which was deemed as Greek Territory by the Paris 1947 convention. Only US intervention prevents a war. This is part of an endless list of challenges to Greek sovereignty, which include illegal Turkish claims to almost every Greek island in the Aegean, even the island Crete, and the daily violation of Greek Air Space and Territorial Waters

1996 August 11 and August 14. Turkish occupation forces together with MHP Grey Wolves terrorists sent by the Turkish Government to occupied Cyprus brutally beat and murder Cypriot refugees peacefully protesting against Turkeys illegal occupation and ethnic cleansing of northern Cyprus, in the UN buffer zone in front of United Nations onlookers and the worlds media who capture the scenes on video. Tassos Isaak is clubbed to death on August 11 by Turkish thugs and his cousin Solomos Solomou is shot dead on August 14 by a so-called "minister" of the puppet occupation regime.

1996 October 13. A 58-year-old Greek Cypriot Civillian, Petros Kakoullis, was shot and killed while out collecting Snails, by the Turkish occupation troops, receiving three bullets, two on the chest and one on the neck.

1999 Turkey captures Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan and after torturing him and depriving him of legal representatives subjects him to an inhume trial in glass cage, demanding the death penalty from a specially set-up Kangaroo Court.

1999 The death toll of Kurds killed in Turkish military operations rises to over 40,000 and according to the figures published by Turkeys own "parliament", 6,000 Kurdish Villages have been systematically emptied of all inhabitants and 3,000,000 Kurds have been displaced.

2001 May 10. In its judgment in the case of Cyprus v. Turkey (application no. 25781/94 the European Court of Human Rights holds that there have been 13 violations of the European Convention of Human Rights by Turkey affecting the rights of the Greek Cypriot refugees and enclaved persons from the occupied areas of Cyprus and a further violation of the rights of the Turkish Cypriots.

A grieving mother holding photos of her missing son.
1600+ men, women and children still missing

Greek Cypriots taken prisoner and transported to Turkey.
up to 70,000 held hostage in concentration camps

A Greek Cypriot napalmed by the Turkish air-force.
5000+ massacred

Greek Cypriots subjected to humiliating and degrading treatment.
thousands raped and tortured
200,000 ethnically cleansed

Christian gave stones smashed by the Turks.
500+ churches desecrated or destroyed

The murder of Tasos Isaac.
murders of refugees continue to this day

The murder of Solomos Solomou.

© 2001/2006 HEC and Argyros Argyrou. Updated on 12 August 2006.