1878 March. Berlin Congress.
1878 June 4. Turkey
sells Cyprus to England.
1879 Kurdish revolt at Badinan by
1894 September - 1896 August.
Sultan Abdul Hamit applies the policy of genocide to the Armenians.
In August and September
1894, Armenians are slain in Sassun.
In October 1895
takes place the first organized genocide in Constantinople and Trebizond
and in November and December 1895 the authorities organized a great
massacre throughout the country.
In June 1896, the
massacre of Van takes place.
the capture by the Armenians in 26-8-1896 of the Ottoman Bank, another
massacre takes place in Constantinople. Total number of victims is 300000.
1896 May 12. Murders of
Greeks and conflicts between Greeks and Turks in the island of Crete.
1909 end of March. New massacres of
the Armenians organized by the New - Turks at Adana, Tarsus and other towns
of Cilicia. Victims are 30000 Armenians and some American missionaries.
1909 Revolution of the
Arabs in Yemen is suppressed in bloodshed by the New - Turks.
1911 October 1. Assassination of
Emilianos, Bishop of Grevena by the Turks.
1912 Kurdish uprising in Mardin
under Bedirhan and H. Remo, and in Bitlis under Seyh Selim.
1912. The Turkish army
in retreat from East Thrace loots the villages of Didymotichon and
Adrianopoli districts. Villages of the Malgara district are burnt. The same
happens in Kessani. Assassinations and massacres accompany the destruction
and looting in this predominantly Greek region.
1913 February. The Turkish authorities
compel the Greek inhabitants of the district of village Crithea to leave
their village in East Thrace. A brutal looting follows.
1913. The reoccupation
of Eastern Thrace by the Turkish army leads to atrocities and massacres o f
Greeks. 15690 are the victims of these massacres. In the regions of Malgara
and Charioupoli many villages are also destroyed. Massacres were followed
1914 February 8. The Dutch
Westerneck and the Norwegian Hoft are appointed as General Inspectors of
the Armenian provinces.
1914 May 25 .The Greek
Orthodox (Ecumenical) Patriarcate protests for the persecution of
Christians and commands all churches and schools to be closed.
1914 May 27. The Turkish
authorities at Pergamum command all Christian population to leave the town
within two hours. The terrorized inhabitants take refuge in the Greek
island of Mytilini.
1914 May - June. The
Turkish authorities enforce all kinds of persecutions in the Greek regions
of West Asia Minor. The coast of Asia Minor is devastated. In Erythrea and
Phocaia the massacres of Greeks are merciless.
1914 July. The General
Inspectors of the Armenian provinces arrive in Constantinople. Mr. Hoft
arrives at Van.
1914 July - August. The
Turkish government creates «the forced labor battalions». It is a new
scheme for extermination of the Greeks - Ottoman citizens - drafted in the
Turkish army. By this method of the "forced labor battalions» 400000
Greeks were exterminated by hunger, hardship, maltreatment and deprivation.
1914 September. The
Turks declare persecution against the Greek inhabitants of the Makri region
of the South - West Asia Minor. Many are killed. Persecution is followed by
plunders, violations and robberies.
1914 November. By order
of the Turkish government many villages of Eastern Thrace where there was a
great majority of Greek population are forcibly evacuated (Neochorio,
Galatas, Callipoli etc..) Plunder of houses and shops follows. Thousands
fled from their ancestral homes to Greece.
1914 November -
December. By order of the Turkish government, the region of Visii and part
of the Saranda Eklisiae is evacuated. 19000 Greeks are exiled in Anatolia
and their properties looted. According to the Ecumenical Patriarchate
records, 119,940 Greeks were expelled from East Thrace.
1914 January -
December. More than 250000 Greeks are exiled from East Thrace and Smyrna's
region. The properties of the exiled are detained.
1914. During this year
Turkish persecutions against the Greeks are hardened. The Ecumenical
Patriarchate strongly protests. Talbot bye the Minister of internal affairs
visits the pro-vinces to examine the complaints, but the persecutions are
intensified because the minister in collaboration with the local
authorities renders them more systematic.
1915 April. Arrests in great numbers
of Armenian intellectuals and prominent national Armenian leaders in
Constantinople and the provinces. They are deported in Anatolia and are
slain on the road. The Armenian soldiers of the Turkish army are disarmed
and massacred by thousands. The Armenian population is exiled to the Syrian
desert and massacred by tens of thousands, slain by the Turkish army, the
irregulars and the civilians or left to die of hunger and maltreatment
1,500,000. Armenians are the victims of Turkish ferocity.
1915 June 13. "The
formal declaration" of the Armenian extermination is published by the
1915 September 16. A
secret telegram to the Allepo District Command orders: "You have
knowledge that the government has decided the thorough extermination of the
Armenian population living in Turkey. Everyone who has a contrary opinion
cannot continue to be a member of the State administration. There must be
an end to their existence without any mercy for the women, children and
invalid persons regardless of the awful means of extermination. Minister of
Internal Affairs Talaat bey». You are not wrong. It is an order of the
Turkish government addressed to Turks who are supposed to belong to the
human race. Every comment is unnecessary.
1915. The Turks begin a
fierce persecution against the Syrian Orthodox and Nestorians living in
Hakkari, Mardin and Midyat regions. Though not well known, this persecution
equals that of the Armenians. One of the first victims was Adai Ser
Archbishop of Sert. General massacres and full destruction were its
characteristics. The annihilation was almost completed till the end of
World War I.
1916. Destruction of the region
Riseou - Platanou of Pontus. Plunder of the towns Ofis, Sourmena and
Gemoura. The looting organized by the Ottoman State officials took place
under the leadership of Ahmet bey and that of field marshal Velip pacha.
1916. The Turks compel the
inhabitants of different regions of Pontus to immigrate to Sivas. Only 550
survived out of 16,750 inhabitants of the Elevi and Tripoli regions. Of the
49,520 inhabitants of Trebizont only 20.300 saved their lives, 1916
December 27. All prominent of Amissos and 4000 Greeks, inhabitants of the
town are arrested and deported to Anatolia.
1917 March 10. Adil Bey, deputy of
Lebanon in the Ottoman Parliament declared officially that only in Lebanon
and Syria, 144,000 persons died of hunger purposely provoked by the Turkish
1917 Spring. The
deportation of 23000 Greeks, inhabitants of Cydoniae is ordered by the
1917 November. 400
Greek families are expelled from the S.W. Asia Minor by the Turks. Their
properties are looted.
1918 January 8. The president of
U.S.A. Wilson declares the principle of self - determination for all the
peoples oppressed by Turkey.
1918 April. Another
8000 Greek families are expelled from S.W. Asia Minor.
1918 May 28. After the
victory of the Armenians over the Turkish army, the independence of Armenia
1918 June 4. After
several months of fighting the Armenians have fought alone against Turkey,
the treaty of Batum is signed by which Turkey recognizes the Independent
1919 June 4. After 5 years of exile
the inhabitants of Pergamum return home.
1919 June 25. The
French premier Clemenceau says for the Armenian massacres: «The whole
history has not to show another example of such organized hideous acts».
1920 January 19. The Supreme Allied
Council recognizes the independence of Armenia.
Bishop of Trebizond is condemned to death in absentio by the Court Martial
of Ankara. The Bishop of Zilon is condemned and dies in jail.
1920 August 10.
Signature of the treaty of Sevres providing an independent Armenia, self
determination for Kurdistan and liberation of East Thrace and Smyrna's
territory, according to the president Wilson declaration for self -
determination of all peoples of Asia Minor.
1920 September. Kemalist
Turkey attacks Armenia. The Armenians fight desperately against the Turkish
army. Finally the Armenians succumbed on 2 - 12 - 1920. The Turkish
victory is followed by a general massacre of the Armenians and the
annexation of one half of the independent Armenia to Turkey..
1920 November 22. The
arbitration of President of U.S.A. Wilson on the turco - Armenian frontiers
1921 June 3. Kemalists arrest 1320
Greeks, prominent inhabitants of Samsus. The next day they kill 701. The
dead are buried in common graves behind the house of Hekir Pacha. The rest
are exiled in the interior of Anatolia.
1922 August 24. The Turkish army
seizes Pergamum. The Greek citizens flee to save their lives.
1922 September 9. The
Turks enter Smyrna. The city is set on fire. Wild massacres of Greeks and
Armenians take place. The victims count about 150000 persons.
1922 October. After the
evacuation of East Thrace by the Greek army, 300000 Greeks are compelled to
leave their country, where their ancestors have lived for thousands of
1914 – 1922 October. It is
estimated that during these 8 years, the Greek nation has suffered by the
- Massacres. More than 150.000 Greeks
of the Pontus region and more than 1400000 Greeks of Asia Minor have perished
by massacres, shooting, hanging, hunger and inhuman and criminal
maltreatment by Turks.
- Refugees. It is estimated that more
than 1.700.000 Greeks were saved from the Turkish murderous frenzy as
refugees. 1400000 of them came to Greece from East Thrace, Asia Minor
and Pontus. About 200.000 went to Russia from Pontus and the rest were
dispersed all over the world.
All these persons left
their fatherland, after more than 3000 years, during which their ancestors
have continuously lived in these regions, chased by the Turks, newcomers in
1924 July 10. Kurdish revolt
of Nasturi in Hakkari. It was suppressed by the 7th Turkish Army corps
after 79 days 36 villages were destroyed 12 others were leveled down
to the earth.
1925 March 3. The great Kurdish
revolution bursts out at Elazig under Seyh - Sait 10.000 Kurds seize Harput
and attack Diyarbakir, the Capital of Kurdistan After the complete
destruction of 48 villages, the,revolution was suppressed at 7/10/1927
drowned in Kurdish blood.
1926 May 16. Mount Agri Kurdish
revolt takes place. The rebels caught prisoner, the 28th Turkish infantry
division. The revolt after being spread to the regions of Hakkari, Siirt
and Mardin, was suppressed after fierce fights with more powerful forces at
1927 May 30. A great Kurdish
revolution in Diyarbakir and Agri under Seyh Enver. It was suppressed after
violent fights at 7/10/1927. 2000 Kurdish fighters were killed. For many
days the waters of Murat river were turned red by the blood of the slain
1928. Two Kurdish uprisings took
place. The first under Resul Aga at Siirt, and the second under Ali Can.
Accurate information lacking, owing to Martial Law.
1930 June 2. Kurdish uprising at Agri
region. It was suppressed at 18 - 9 - 30.
1930 August 31. Turkish
newspaper Milliet publishes a declaration of Premier Ismet Inonu «Only the
Turkish nation has the right to have national claims in this country. No
other element has such a right».
1930 September 30.
Turkish paper Milliet publishes a statement of the Turkish minister of
«The Turk is the only
master in his country. Those who are not pure Turks have one right in this
country: The right to be servants, the right to be slaves». This is the way
Turkey understands the human rights and behaves to the minorities of
Armenians, Greeks, Syrians and Kurds. Even today 12 million Kurds
have not a school, their language, their music and dances are prohibited,
their leaders persecuted and the Kurdish people killed.
1935. A Kurdish uprising under Buban
in Bitlis and in Siirt under Abdul Rahman takes place.
1937. A Kurdish revolution under
Seyh Risa, bursts at Dersim. Details are not known because of the severe
censorship by turkish authorities.
1937 May 23. The Turkish government
forbids the edition of the newspaper of Constantinople Son Telegraph,
because it has referred to the Kurdish sufferings.
1938 November 10. Death of Kemal
Ataturk, the butcher of Kurds, Greeks and Armenians who saved his country
1941 May. Mobilization of 20 classes
of the Greek and Armenian minorities living in Turkey and having Turkish
citizenship, in order to exterminate them in the same manner, as they have
already done during World War I, through the forced - labor battalions.
1942 November 11. The law of
taxation on property of the non Muslims of Turkey (Varlik Vergisi) is
voted. It is a hideous attempt of economic extermination of the Greek and
Armenian communities, which were exposed undefended to the excesses and
abuse of power by the Turkish economic authorities.
1955 September 6. The Turkish
authorities organize a great pogrom against the Greeks of Constantinople.
29 Churches were burnt and 46 looted. The graves of the Ecumenical
Patriarchs and Christian cemeteries were vandalized. Thousands of shops
were destroyed. Hundreds of women raped. Vandalism's at a smaller scale
have takes place in Smyrna.
1960 A military Coup takes place showing that the Armed Forces have
always been and will always will be in charge of Turkey where there is no
1971 12 March.
Another military Coup occurs which leaves the fascist military in power
1974 July 20. The Turkish army
invades the independent and armless island of Cyprus, member of U.N.O. and
seizes the 40% of it, on pretext that this is necessary for the Turkish
-Cypriot minority which equals 18% of the whole population.
1974 July - August. Despite the
resolutions of the U.N. Security Council No 353, 357, 358, 359, 360 etc. which
urged: «The withdrawal without delay from the Republic of Cyprus of foreign
military personnel». The invading Turkish forces have turned into a
permanent occupation army, which for 25 years does not conform with the
above resolutions, despises U.N.O., challenges every conscientious man of
the World and undermines world peace.
1975 The Turkish occupation regime in north Cyprus declares it to be a
"Federated Turkish State" in the face of UN condemnation. Out of
the 200,000 original Greek Cypriot inhabitants who made up 82% of the
population only 20,000 remain in enclaves, soon to dwindle in number to
less than 600 through the deprivation of basic human rights including
Freedom of Movement, Education and Medical Treatment.
1976 The 1st Report of the European
Commission of Human Rights Turkey's invasion in Cyprus and aftermath (20
July 1974 - 18 May 1976) finds that Turkey is guilty of mass violations of
the European Convention of Human Rights.
1978 The Turkish
fascist state initiates a pogrom against Alevi-muslims all over Turkey. All
over Turkey, Grey Wolves murder hundreds of people. The place where the
most people are killed is Kahramanmaras. The repression and criminalisation
of Alevi-muslims in Turkey, continous also in the present time
1978 December 25.
Turkish fascists massacre hundreds of Kurds in Marash
1978 December 28.
Proclamation of Martial Law in 15 provinces of Turkish Kurdistan
prohibiting for 18 years now any information about the sufferings of the
Kurdish people. The fascist government of Ankara hopes that they will
achieve by force the submission of the enslaved peoples of Asia Minor. They
hope they will continue to occupy the country of Armenia, Kurdistan, North
Cyprus and the Greek fatherland of East Thrace and West Asia Minor. The future
will prove how wrong they are. Every free and conscientious man of the
world must help for that.
12. Coup led by General Kenan Evren overthrows the governing MHP replacing
one brand of fascism with yet another lasting until 1983.
1983. The 2nd Report of the European
Commission of Human Rights Turkey's invasion in Cyprus and aftermath (19
May 1976 to 10 February 1983) finds that Turkey is guilty of further mass
violations of the European Convention of Human Rights.
1983 November 15. The illegal Turkish puppet regime
declares independence for the "Turkish Republic of Northern
Cyprus" ("TRNC") in the occupied part of Cyprus which has
now been systematically Ethnically Cleansed of over 200,000 indigenous
Greek Cypriots. The "illegal" declaration is immediately
"Deplored" by the UN Security Council which declares the
"Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" "Legally Invalid"
in Resolutions 541(1983) and 550 (1984) which also "Condemns"
this and all other secessionist actions.
begins a crackdown on Kurds seeking autonomy. In the following years many
Kurdish Villages are razed to the ground and emptied of inhabitants who are
moved to other parts of Turkey or forced to flee as refugees. Those who
speak out against the Turkish regime are summarily imprisoned or
1993 The Turkish brutalities against
the Kurdish people continue and are stepped up. Turkey showing ABSOLUTELY
NO RESPECT for international laws and agreements invades Northern Iraq in
its attempt to butcher the Kurdish people
1995 Turkish soldiers from the Hakkari Mountain Commando Brigade
slaughter and dismember the bodies of Kurdish resistance fighters. They
then take photographs of themselves posing with the victims of their
barbaric crime and sell them as trophies at $2 a piece.
1996 January 27.
Turkish naval forces briefly invade and occupy the island of Imia which was
deemed as Greek Territory by the Paris 1947 convention. Only US
intervention prevents a war. This is part of an endless list of challenges
to Greek sovereignty, which include illegal Turkish claims to almost every
Greek island in the Aegean, even the island Crete, and the daily violation
of Greek Air Space and Territorial Waters
1996 August 11 and August 14. Turkish occupation forces together with MHP Grey Wolves terrorists sent by the Turkish
Government to occupied Cyprus brutally beat and murder Cypriot refugees
peacefully protesting against Turkeys illegal occupation and ethnic
cleansing of northern Cyprus, in the UN buffer zone in front of United
Nations onlookers and the worlds media who capture the scenes on video.
Tassos Isaak is clubbed to death on August 11 by Turkish thugs and his
cousin Solomos Solomou is shot dead on August 14 by a so-called
"minister" of the puppet occupation regime.
1996 October 13. A 58-year-old Greek Cypriot Civillian, Petros
Kakoullis, was shot and killed while out collecting Snails, by the Turkish
occupation troops, receiving three bullets, two on the chest and one on the
1999 Turkey captures
Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan and after torturing him and depriving him of
legal representatives subjects him to an inhume trial in glass cage,
demanding the death penalty from a specially set-up Kangaroo Court.
1999 The death toll of Kurds killed in Turkish military operations
rises to over 40,000 and according to the figures published by Turkeys own
"parliament", 6,000 Kurdish Villages have been systematically
emptied of all inhabitants and 3,000,000 Kurds have been displaced.
2001 May 10. In
its judgment in the case of Cyprus v. Turkey (application no. 25781/94 the
European Court of Human Rights holds that there have been 13 violations of
the European Convention of Human Rights by Turkey affecting the rights of
the Greek Cypriot refugees and enclaved persons from the occupied areas of
Cyprus and a further violation of the rights of the Turkish Cypriots.