US gave full backing to Turkish invasion
THE United States gave full blessing to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus,
even assuring Turkey that it would "get them a solution involving one
third of the island.''
This cynical US involvement is revealed in the latest batch of secret
official State Department documents released for publication under the
The American stand has long been known, but this is the first time that
it has been confirmed so completely by an official State Department
This is clarified in the very first paragraph of the document which is
stamped ``SECRET/EYES ONLY.''
It declares that the only conceivable settlement of the Cyprus problem
"will have to rest on a de facto division of the island, whatever the
While admitting that the United States ``has the clout''
to prevent the invasion, the document nevertheless advises against doing so
"before the fighting stops."
The document is dated August 14, 1974, the exact date of the second
massive wave of the Turkish invasion of the island. It is headed:
``Memorandum for the Secretary - Cyprus Actions'' from Helmut Sonnenfeldt,
one of the top State Department officials dealing with Greco-Turkish
The document even includes a map detailing the plan of action of the
Turkish invasion force. This is headed ``Map done by the Bureau of
Intelligence and Research projecting Turkish moves on Cyprus, August 13, 1974.''
It is worth noting that this plan was the one followed exactly by the
Turkish troops, a further proof of the close American involvement in the
Turkish invasion planning.
Here is the full text of the document:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
August 14, 1974
MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY
FROM: Helmut Sonnenfeldt
SUBJECT: Cyprus Actions
You wanted some brief ideas on what we do next.
Nothing I can think of will stop the Turks now from trying to secure by
force what they demanded in their ultimata. In fact, as has always been
true, the only coneivable modus vivendi will have to rest on a de facto
division of the island, whatever the form.
If the Turks move fast and can then be gotten to stand down, it may
pre-empt Greek counteraction and then give us a chance to try for a deal.
(It may also save Karamanlis).
While the Soviets can serve as a bogey, we must keep them at arms
length. They cannot become the arbiter between US allies. Their interests
differ drastically from ours: we want a modus vivendi between Greece and Turkey,
they want a non-aligned Cyprus, preferably with Greece or Turkey or both
disaffected from NATO.
Thus, we should
- urgently try to contain Greek reaction; 24 hours at a time;
- bluntly tell the Turks they must stop, today, tomorrow at the latest;
- warn the Turks that Greece is rapidly moving leftward;
- send high-level US man to Athens to exert continuing direct influence
- assuming the Turks quickly take Famagusta, privately assure Turks we
will get them solution involving one third of island, within some kind of
- assure Greeks we will contain Turk demands and allow no additional
You should not get involved directly till the fighting stops; then you
must since there is no alternative and only we have the clout.
I do not think Brussels/NATO is the place to use when the time comes.
The Greeks are probably too sore at NATO and the vehicle of a ministerial
meeting is awkward. Anyway, you need Ecevit and Karamanlis.
London may be unacceptable to the Turks because of Callaghan’s blast at
You should not shuttle.
This may mean Geneva. Washington, at the President’s initiative,
would be all right but hard to get the parties to come to. Also provocative
of the Russians. New York would make it difficult to keep the Russians
You could also try Rome.
10 August 2007