Establishing an Accurate Chronology


In order to judge the historical authenticity of the bible we need to establish a reliable chronology by which we can fix the dates of biblical events. This chronology can easily be derived from material given in the bible itself and external sources if we can show that the biblical description of historic events, which occur in the bible region, can be corroborated by reliable independent sources. So lets begin by attempting to identify which historical events the bible could be referring to and see if they can be verified and used as a basis for a chronology assuming as a primary postulate that the books and generations given in the bible are intended to follow in chronological order.


The book of Genesis opens with the creation of the world and of Adam. Since this event cannot easily be identified with a specific historic event due to its over mythologisation we must read on further until we can find something that is recognisable as a reference to something such as a battle or the name of a regional king that appears in recorded history.


Noah’s flood is the next major event occurring in the bible but with no timeline established thus far and no references to known historic figures we have no way of knowing as to when it is supposed to have occurred. There have been many floods which have occurred in the bible region and once a rudimentary timeline is established we can return to this event and try to pin point it.


Going down the list of generations from Noah we come to Abram who the bible states takes his wife Sari to Egypt along with his nephew Lot. After Pharaoh and his household contract a disease Sari and Abraham are expelled together with Lot. Shortly following this Lot settles in Sodom. Next a war breaks out between 9 kings and Lot is abducted when Sodom is taken. Abram then makes an alliance with Mambrh and rescues Lot.


Since Genesis 14 gives us the names of the 9 kings who it alleges were fighting each other at the time of Abraham, and the places they came from, lets see if they can be identified from historical records.


The Bible (Authorised Version)

“Genesis 14:1 ¶ And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations;

That these made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar.”

The Bible (Septuagint)

1 ¶ And it came to pass in the reign of Amarphal king of Sennaar, and Arioch king of Ellasar, that Chodollogomor king of Elam, and Thargal king of nations,

2  made war with Balla king of Sodom, and with Barsa king of Gomorrha, and with Sennaar, king of Adama, and with Symobor king of Seboim and the king of Balac, this is Segor.


Five of these kings as well as Abraham and Mambrh can be identified with known historical figures dating to the El-Armana period when the Mittani Hittites ruled Syria-Palestine as vassals of Egypt.


Comparison of Biblical and Historic Kings

Biblical King

Historic King

Thargal of Nations

Thdkaliya/Tudhalia III king of the Hittites c.1400-1380 BC

Amarfal of Senner

Amar-Fal = Eriba-Vul = Eriba-Adad king of Assyria c.1392-1380

Hodollogmor of Elam

Kudur-laghghamar king of Elam

Arioch of Ellaser

Eri-Aku = Erichthonius king of Troy c.1413-1375 BC

Sumobor of Zeboim

Shemeber = Kada-Shman-Vul = Kadashman-Enlil king of Babylon c.1375 or Kadashman-Kharbé c.1415-1390

Mambrh the Amorite

Ammis-tamru king of Ugrait c.1400


Artatama/Artashumara king of Mittani c.1390BC


(Note that in the names of Assyrian kings the titles Adad and Enlil were interchangeable with the Babylonian titles Vul or Baal)


A Babylonian Inscription recently deciphered by Professor Pinches bares the names of Eri-Aku (Arioch or Erichthonius) King of Pontus, Kudur-laghghamar (Chodorlahomor) King of the Elamites and Tuduchula (Thadal)King of Nations, and tells of a campaign by these monarchs in Palestine against Khammu-rabi (Shemeber, Khammu-rapaltu or Kadashman-Khrabe) King of Babylon.


Some people have misidentified Amarfal with Hammurabi (Khammu-rabi) the Babylonian king of c.1800 BC but this cannot be possible since the bible sates that Amarfal was on the same side as Arioch, Chodorlahomor and Thadal but the tablet says these people were enemies of Khammu-rabi, therefore he cannot be Amarfal. Josephus also says in Book 1 of his Antiquities that Amarfal/Amraphel was an Assyrian commander.


The naming of Tuduchula who is easily identified as one of four known Hittite kings means that this tablet must date to the time of the Hittite Empire between 1650 and 1250 BC when these kings were reigning and by a process of elimination using the dates given the most likely date for the tablet is 1390 BC.


Therefore we can begin our analysis by assuming that the period in which the bible places Abram/Abraham was c.1390 BC and test if this can be corroborated.


Going down 7 generations from Abram/Abraham we next come to the era of Moses and the Exodus.


According to Manetho who lived in the first century BC the Exodus was set during the reign of the period of the Egyptian kings Amenophis and Seti II c.1200 BC. Manetho makes Moses to be a renegade Egyptian priest called Osraseph who was involved in the war that occurred between Amenophis and rival foreign invaders.


At about this time Egyptian records refer to two expulsions of invaders from Egypt. The first was an expulsion of an alliance of peoples from Palestine and the second was an expulsion from Egypt of Greek tribes that were defeated at sea know as the Sea Peoples.


Egyptologists have also found records showing that Pharaoh Seti II who succeeded Amenophis was deposed by his Syrian butler Bey who then proclaimed Merneptah-Sipta his successor in 1193 BC and was made chancellor in reward. In this office he laid insult to all the Gods, and imposed extreme levels of taxation on the people.


Unfortunately, even though the bible mentions the Exodus occurred after the construction of the city of Ramses, probably named after Ramses the Great who ended his reign in 1212BC, with no names of historic figures to go by such as the name of the Pharaoh who adopted Moses, it is not certain weather Moses lived in this period or in the following generation or the one after.


Therefore when we have constructed our chronology one of its major tests will be to see if the date it gives for the Exodus is corroborated by the extant Egyptian records and the account of Manetho.


Searching further through the bible we come to the account of the sack of Jericho by Joshua in the next generation after Moses. This may correspond to the repulsion of the Sea People by Ramses III (1182-1151) in his 8th year which is 1175 BC.


In Joshua 10:12-13 what may possibly be a solar eclipse is alluded to.


The Bible (Septuagint)

Joshua 10:

12  then Joshua spoke to the lord, in the day in which the lord delivered the Amorite into the power of Israel, when he destroyed them in Gabaon, and they were destroyed from before the children of Israel: and Joshua said, let the sun stand over against Gabaon, and the moon over against the valley of Aelon.

13  and the sun and the moon stood still, until god executed vengeance on their enemies; and the sun stood still in the midst of heaven; it did not proceed to set till the end of one day.

14  and there was not such a day either before or after, so that god should hearken to a man, because the lord fought on the side of Israel.


Two possible solar eclipses both annular occurred close to the time in question, that of February 12 1175 BC which just clips Egypt as it ends and that of July 8 1164 BC cantered over Iran at it’s maximum. Another possible candidate may be the annular eclipse of Jan 12 1183 BC which would have been visible of Sinai or another annular eclipse on October 9 1197 BC over Egypt but which is outside of the reign of Ramses III and closer to that of Merneptah.


Since Ramses III is not directly mentioned by name in the Bible either, we shall continue reading further until we can find the name of another king who can be identified.


After the death of Joshua the Book of Judges starts by saying that the Assyrian king Chousarsathaim ruled over Syria-Palestine. This king must be Assur-Risilim king of Assyria c.1150 BC the father of Tiglath-Pileser I (1114 BC) and is named in his son’s inscription. We can be certain of this since there are no other kings with similar names that can be found anywhere in any Assyrian King lists.


The Bible (Septuagint)

Judges 3:

8  And the Lord was very angry with Israel, and sold them into the hand of Chusarsathaim king of Syria of the rivers: and the children of Israel served Chusarsathaim eight years.


10  And the Spirit of the Lord came upon him, and he judged Israel; and he went out to war against Chusarsathaim: and the Lord delivered into his hand Chusarsathaim king of Syria of the rivers, and his hand prevailed against Chusarsathaim.

Inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I

[40] Tiglath-Pileser, the illustrious prince, whom Ashur and Hercules have exalted to the utmost wishes of his heart; who has pursued after the enemies of Ashur, and has subjugated all the earth.

[41] The son of Ashur-ris-ili, the powerful King, the subduer of foreign countries, he who has reduced all the lands of the Magian world.

[42] The grandson of Mutaggil-Nabu, whom Ashur, the great Lord, aided according to the wishes of his heart and established in strength in the government of Assyria.


Now going though the Book of Chronicles we are told that Beera the son of Joel a descendent of Ruben fought against both Tiglath-Pileser I and  Asharid-Pal-Ekur II who were both kings of Assyria at the same time. In the Septuagint Asharid-Pal-Ekur II is called FALWH which is equivalent to Vul-Ek(er). Therefore we have a date of around about 1114BC for this event.


The Bible (Septuagint)

1 Chronicles 5:

3  The sons of Ruben the first-born of Israel; Enoch, and Phallus, Asrom, and Charmi.

4  The sons of Joel; Semei, and Banaia his son: and the sons of Gug the son of Semei.

5  His son was Micha, his son Recha, his son Joel,

6  his son Beel, whom Thagla-phallasar king of Assyria carried away captive: he is the chief of the Rubenites.

7  And his brethren in his family, in their distribution according to their generations; the chief, Joel, and Zacharia.

8  And Balec the son of Azuz, the son of Sama, the son of Joel: he dwelt in Aroer, and even to Naban, and Beelmasson.

9  And he dwelt eastward {1} to the borders of the wilderness, from the river Euphrates: for they had much cattle in the land of Galaad. {1) Gr. till people coming to the wilderness}

10  And in the days of Saul they made war upon the sojourners in the land; and they fell into their hands, all of them dwelling in their tents eastward of Galaad.


26  And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Phaloch king of Assyria, and the spirit of Thagla-phallasar king of Assyria, and carried away Ruben and Gaddi, and the half-tribe of Manasse, and brought them to Chaach, and Chabor, and to the river Gozan, until this day


There are no more than 11 Generations between Jacob and Saul during which we have the Exodus, and the joint reign of Tiglath-Pileser I and Asahrid-Pal-Ekur II over Assyria dated to 1102 BC, no more than 5 generations before Solomon.


Next we come to Roboam in whose reign Sheshonq (Shishak) Pharaoh of Egypt sacks Syria-Palestine. Sheshonq’s own uncompleted inscription mentions this event which occurs towards the end of his reign, so he would have become Pharaoh during the latter part of Solomon’s reign when Sadoc was high priest.


Thus far all of these events can be referenced by the number of Generations from Abraham or from Jacob, but counting from Roboam (945 BC) downwards the reliability of the generations comes into question since the kingship of the so-called kingdom of “Israel” was not hereditary and the kings of “Judea “ cannot be trusted to have been true decedents of Roboam.


Fortunately we still have other lists of generations that cover this period that appear in the Book of Chronicles and in the Gospel of Luke so it is still possible to fill the gap.


In the generation of the Grandsons of Aelem the last known of the decedents of Benjamin, Israel is supposed to have been carried away by Shalmaneser V (who reigned before Sargon) after a 3 year long siege of Samaria. This event cannot be proven to have occurred but according to the Tyrian annals Shalmaneser V did lay siege to Tyre and died in the process in 722BC. Further more this king only reigned 4 years and this offers us an extremely accurate date for the end of the siege.


From this point on it is possible to list and number all the known generations against the dates of the known kings and perform a statistical linear regression on the figures to see if the generation corresponding to each event plotted against the year of the reign of each known king form a straight line. If this is done it will show how accurate the bibles chronology is by linearity.


In order to obtain the most accuracy since the dates of the start of a kings reign do not necessarily have to coincide with a biblical event or the precise beginning of a biblical generation, we should collect some more data though.


In the reign of Joahim, Nebuchanesser 605BC, is supposed to have carried away Jerusalem. Again this cannot be proven but according to the Tyrian annals Nebuchanesser did capture Tyre.


Next Cyrus is supposed to have reigned over Persia and taken Babylon in 538BC, in the generation of Zorobabel.


After this we have no other historical events that are related in the Old Testament. The furthest the Old Testament generations go is to Odolia so we can assume that was written down when the text of Septuagint was placed in the Library of Alexandria and frozen in time during the reign of Ptolemy Philopater in about 285BC and no later.


The last historical event given in the bible by generation is the life of Jesus, who was supposed to have been in Jerusalem in the 15th year of Tiberius (Luke 3:1) when Joseph Caiphas and Ananias were both High Priest and he was supposed to have been crucified at around about the age of 32 or 33 in 28 or 29 AD.


Putting all of this together we get:


List of Biblical Generations and Events


Regression Calculation


We thus find that each biblical generation equates to exactly 25 years. This figure corresponds to the period used by the Egyptians in a calendar system where 309 Lunar Months were equal to 25 Civil years of 365 days, and would indicate that the entire chronology was artificially devised for the sake of convenience by the authors of the bible. Since the statistics give an R2 value of 1.00 for the regression line this not only proves that the generations were set up to be linear in regard to events, but it also proves that the Chronology that has been constructed along the line is historically valid and justified.


Using this time line we obtain a date of 1197 BC as the date of the Exodus which corroborates the account of Manetho since the reign of Seti II dates from 1199 to 1193 BC. We also get a date of 1172 BC for the start of the reign of Joshua confirming his identification as being contemporary to Ramses III’s campaign in Syria-Palestine. This corroboration proves not only that Manetho’s independent dating of the Exodus is correct but it also justifies the method and assumptions used to derive the chronology on the basis of looking for corroborative historical references to biblical events and persons.


Note that the sequence of generations of Abram, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Israel, Levi, Kohath, Amram seems to have been devised so as to normalise the period it documents (1397-1297) to a scheme of 4 generations per century like the period from Moses downward. If the sequence is read as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Levi, Kohath, Amram this would corresponded to a scheme of 3 generations per century which is the system used by Herodotus to determine the reigns of the Egyptian Pharaohs (Histories 2.142.1).


Accurate Numerical reconstruction of the Bible’s Chronology


Now that it has been proven that the generations and dates given in the bible are linear and form an accurate time line we can proceed to reconstruct the entire chronology by a third independent method using the lengths of reign, ages and dates of birth of the biblical patriarchs which are given in the bible with the regression line acting as our guide.


The first thing that needs to be understood is that the biblical dates after Abraham and (and even prior to him) including parts of the Book of Kings are based on an equinoctial calendar rather than on an annual calendar. This having been said will be our primary postulate for reconstructing the chronology arithmetically.


The inhabitants of Syria-Palestine are known to have celebrated the new year at both the Vernal and Autumnal Equinoxes and also at the Summer and Winter solstices. These reference points for the start of the year correspond to the start points for the Roman, Babylonian, Greek, and Gregorian calendars.


The use of dating based on a Solsticial (winter to summer, summer to winter) calendar in ancient Greece can be proven by reference to its use by Pausanius 4.17.10 who states that “twenty two winters and green herbs” was taken to mean eleven years since time was reckoned between solstices. A similar method referring to time between Equinoxes (eg. autumn leaves and spring shoots in poetic form) was used in the bible but due to the ignorance of the copyists the fractional notation has either been deleted, misunderstood or lost in translation.


Pliny the elder also justifies this in his seventh book of The History of Nature.


Pliny the elder, The History of Nature, book 7, Chap. XLVIII.

The term and length of mans life is uncertain, not only by reason of the diversity of claimants, but also because the Historians have delivered such variety of men’s ages, and every man by himself hath a several time limited unto him, at the very day of his nativity. Hesiodus, the first writer (as I take it) who has treated of this argument, and yet like a poet, in his fabulous discourse as touching the age of man, saith forsooth, That a crow lives 9 times as long as we; and the harts or stags 4 times as long as the crow; but the ravens thrice as long as they. As for his other reports as touching the Nymphs and the bird Phœnix, they are more like poetical tales, than historical narrations.


Anacreon the poet maketh report, that Arganthonius king of the Tartessians, lived 150 years: and Cynaras likewise king of the Cyprians, ten years longer. Theopompus affirms, that Epimenides the Gnossian, died when he was 157 years old. Hellanicus hath written, that among the Epians in Ætolia, there be some that continue full two hundred years: and with him accords Damases; adding moreover, that there was one Pictoreus among them, a man of exceeding stature, mighty and strong withal, who lived 300 years.


Ephorus testifies, that ordinarily the Kings of Arcadia were 300 years old ere they died. Alexander Cornelius writes of one Dando a Sclavonian, that lived 500 years. Xenophon in his treatise of old age, makes mention of a king of the Latines, or as some say, over a people upon the sea coasts, who continued alive 600 years: and because he had not lied long enough already, he goes on still and says, That his son came to 800. All those strange reports proceed from the ignorance of the times past, and for want of knowledge how they made their account: for some reckoned the summer for one year, and the winter for another. There were again, that reckoned every quarter for a year, as the Arcadians, whose year was but three months. Ye shall have some, and namely the Ægyptians, that count every change or new moon, for a year: and therefore no marvel if some of them are reported to have lived 1000 years.


Eusebius says the same.


Eusebius, Chronicon, Book 1.

For instance, the ancient Egyptians talked about lunar years, that is a month of days or years containing 30 days. Other people consider the seasons to be periods of three months; in other words, they reckon each changing period of three months as a single year, and count the years in that way.


The so-called “years” in the bible between Abraham and David can be shown to refer to periods of 6 months duration since the Jews recorded the year as beginning at both the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.


Easton’s Revised Bible Dictionary

The Jews reckoned the year in two ways,

1. according to a sacred calendar, in which the year began about the time of the vernal equinox, with the month Abib; and

2. according to a civil calendar, in which the year began about the time of the autumnal equinox, with the month Nisan. The month Tisri is now the beginning of the Jewish year.


This will now be proven on the basis of numerical consistency. It can be shown to be so since the Book of Kings gives the date for the so-called Exodus as being either 480 "years" (in the Massoretic Text) or 440 "years" (in the Septuagint) before the 4th year of the reign of Solomon.


If Solomon’s reign came to an end in the generally accepted date of 936 BC (as I shall show later) then with a 40 year reign for Solomon the date of the Exodus can be calculated thus:


(976-4)+440 = 1412 BC


This figure as can be seen is not justified by the linear regression which gives a year of 1197 for Moses, nor by Manethos dating of Moses to the reign of Seti II or the biblical reference to Ramses, a name which was unheard of in Egypt until 1293 BC. The reign of Assur-Risilim who reigned 2 generations later than Moses in 1150 does not tally with this dating either.


But if we take a figure of 220 years for the number of years to the Exodus we get:


(976-4)+220 = 1192 BC


This figure is perfect and fits in with what we already know. Unfortunately since we are unsure which numbers were originally written in fractional notation and which were not we do not know if the 4th year of Solomon should actually be halved to give the 2nd year, or if Solomon’s reign should be taken as 20 years which would give the following if we take the Massoretic texts figure of 480 years to the Exodus and half it*.


(956-2)+240 = 1194 BC


The easiest thing to do is to take an average of the above two dates. The end year of Solomon already carries with it a +/-2 years margin of error anyway so an extra year on the error margin makes little difference. But it is actually possible to prove mathematically that the date of 1192 BC is the correct date as I shall show below using additional information that fixes the post Exodus chronology absolutely. The original research for this proof took me two months from September to November 2001. After obtaining a copy of the Book of Jasher in August 2007, I have updated the calculations.


Along with the reference to the Exodus being 440 equinoxes or 220 years before the 4th year of Solomon’s Reign, there also exists the chronology of Judges which takes us from immediately after the death of Joshua to the reign of Saul.


The book of Judges makes no mention of how long the Judges reigned in total and there is no mention of the length of Saul’s reign in the Old Testament at all, but the book of “Acts” in the New Testament though does give us this information.


The Bible (AV)

Acts 13:20  And after that he gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.

Acts 13:21  And afterward they desired a king: and God gave unto them Saul the son of Cis, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, by the space of forty years.


Saul reigns for 40 years after being anointed by Samuel, and according to Josephus Antiquities 18 years of Samuels reign as a Judge elapse during Sauls reign and 12 years are alone after the death of Eli.



Antiquities 6.(5)292: Now he (Samuel) governed and presided over the people alone, after the death of Eli the high priest, twelve years, and eighteen years together with Saul the king. And thus we have finished the history of Samuel.


The bible tells us that David and Solomon both reign 40 years each.


According to the Book of Samuel Eli reigns 20 “years in the LXX or 40 “years” in the Hebrew version. The question that needs to be answered is which one of this is right. The difference in the number of years by a factor of two is an indication that fractional notation was originally being used and indicates that the number of real years referred to cannot be greater than the figure given in the Septuagint (LXX) text. The following demonstration will show that it is the LXX figure which is correct and that the book of Samuel’s years in the Hebrew version of the text are given in eighths of a year by splitting up each season up into 2 halves. If the seasons were spilt into thirds, beginning, middle and end then you would have 12 equal months, so there is no reason to exclude the possibility of splitting the season into a beginning and end half to give eight eighths.


If Solomon’s reign begins in 976 BC, then David reigns from 1016 BC and Saul reigns from 1056 BC. This means that Eli the last Judge before Samuel, dies in 1048 BC since after Eli’s death Samuel lives 12 years until he makes Saul king.


The date of the Exodus derived by adding 220 to 972 (Solomon’s 4th year) is 1192 BC. According to the book of Jasher 90:32, Joshua was 108 equinoxes old in the 66th year after Israelites left Egypt. In Jasher 90:47 he lives to 110 equinoxes (55 years) and Judged Israel for 28 years thus he dies in 1158 BC. Josephus says that he judges Israel for 25 years but this figure is unworkable. Eusebius in Book 1 of his Chronicon says Joshua ruled for 27 years after the death of Moses, which more closely supports the account of Jasher. 2Samuel 5:5-6 implies that David actually reigned 40 years and 6 months, therefore it is possible that Jasher gives this 6 months to Joshua counting as a single equinoctial year bringing 27 years to 28, so we will use the figure given by Jasher noting that the dates from the end of the reign of Joshua until the start of start of the reign of David may actually be 6 months earlier than calculated.


According to 1Samuel 7:13 the Philistines are defeated by Samuel and never trouble Israel anymore until his death, which according to Josephus is 18 years into Saul’s reign or 1038 BC.


A gap of 1158-1038 = 120 Civil years now needs to be bridged and this can be achieved if the reign of Saul is be taken as solsticial years and therefore halved. This is justified by the fact that David who took the throne at the age of 30 would have been only 8 years old when he led the Philistines in battle after Samuel’s death if Saul reigned 40 years whereas he would have been 28 years old if Saul reigned 20 years which is more credible. This places Samuel’s death in 1018 BC and a gap of 1158-1018 = 140 Civil years needs to be bridged.


This is equal to the length of the reign of all the Judges up to the death of Sampson + the length of the reign of Eli + the length of the reign of Samuel assuming that the judges and the foreign rules reign consecutively and the length of their reigns up to and including Eli is counted in seasons, using the LXX figure of 20 seasons for the reign of Eli and Samuel’s years as given by Josephus are counted as full years.  Josephus 6.(4)[83] claims there were 10 years of unrest plus a further 8 years (ie. the reign of Assur-Risilim) before the first Judges were appointed and this needs to be included in the calculations to bridge the gap.




Antiquities 6.(4)[84] epi gar Môuseos kai tou mathêtou autou [Iêsou], hos ên stratêgos, aristokratoumenoi dieteloun: meta de tên ekeinou teleutên etesi tois pasi deka kai pros toutois oktô to plêthos autôn anarchia katesche.

[85] meta tauta d' eis tên proteran epanêlthon politeian tôi kata polemon aristôi doxanti gegenêsthai kai kat' andreian peri tôn holôn dikazein epitrepontes: kai dia touto ton chronon touton tês politeias kritôn ekalesan.


The Chronology calculated on this basis is given here:


Chronology A


If the Hebrew date for the Exodus is used Saul can be given a 40 year reign but the age of David when he defects to the Philistines in this scenario makes this unlikely since he would only be 8 years old.


Eusebius states in Book 1 of his Chronicon that “It is clear that Samuel was leader of the people for many years; but Scripture states that Saul reigned for just two years. In the first book of Kings, it says [ 1 Samuel, 13'1 ]: "Saul was the son of a year in his reigning; and he ruled over Israel for two years". Symmachus makes this clearer in his translation: "Saul was like a year-old child in his reigning", meaning that Saul was pure and faultless at the beginning of his reign. He kept that nature for two years, but when he turned to evil ways, he was rejected by God and suffered divine punishment. Therefore the remaining years have been assigned to Samuel….” If Saul is given a 20 year reign then the 18 years which Samuel shared with Saul the king would leave only 2 years in which Saul ruled alone and would account for Eusebius observation.


There is still the possibility of the Exodus being up to 4 years earlier than the given date with varying degrees of probability but the available figures only justify a date of 1192 BC. An error margin should therefore be specified (see later) to indicate how much the reliability of the biblical figures is open to question.


This reconstruction proves that contrary to Josephus derision of their work, the Ancient Greek writers were correct in their dating of the so-called Exodus to the end of the 18th Dynasty and since the Egyptian texts they quoted make no mention of Moses the only way they could have derived the date was by the method above. They must have also possessed accurate Egyptian king lists in-order to be able to say who was Pharaoh at the time.


From this point we can proceed to work out the reigns of all the biblical figures up to Abram/Abraham using this table.




Chronology of the Patriarchs before the Exodus


To work out the chronology of the Patriarchs before the Exodus we need to establish how many years before the so-called Exodus the so-called Israelite captivity began.


The Greek Septuagint (LXX)** states that the so-called Israelites had been living in both Canaan and Egypt for 430 “years” prior to the so-called Exodus. Josephus on the other had gives a figure of 215 “years” for this event and this indicates that the figures in the bible were originally written in fractional notion since it is precisely one half of 430. Jasher 81:3 gives this figure as 210 “years”.


The Hebrew version of the bible says that the captivity was in Egypt alone as does Jasher.


If we use Josephus figure and compare the date for the start of the captivity with the regression calculation for the dates of the Patriarchs then Jacob would have entered Egypt in 1407 BC which dates to before the reign of Abraham as given by the linear regression of generations counting Jacob and Israel, and Abram and Abraham as 4 different people (because they fathered their sons in the second generation of their lives, or in middle age as stated in the bible). Therefore this assumption cannot be right and the number of years in captivity must really be 430 solsticial “years” which is 107.5 civil years.  


Nearly two years after I made the original draft of this discussion I discovered that Eusebius had preserved a list of figures for the ages and year of birth of the Generations of Levi through to Moses which are not included in the Old Testament.


Eusebius of Caesarea: Praeparatio Evangelica (Preparation for the Gospel).
Tr. E.H. Gifford (1903) -- Book 9

'But Jacob came from Charran to Laban, when he was eighty[seven] years old, and begat Levi, and Levi was afterwards seventeen years in Egypt from the time of his coming from Canaan into Egypt, so that he was sixty years old when he begat Clath; and in the same year in which Clath was born Jacob died in Egypt, after he had blessed the sons of Joseph, being himself one hundred and forty-seven years old and leaving Joseph fifty-six years old. And Levi was a hundred and thirty-seven years old when he died; and when Clath was forty years old he begat Amram, who was fourteen years old when Joseph died in Egypt being a hundred and ten years old: and Clath was a hundred and thirty-three years old when he died. Amram took to wife his uncle's daughter Jochabet, and when he was seventy-five years old begat Aaron and Moses; but when he begat Moses Amram was seventy-eight years old, and Amram was a hundred and thirty-six years old when he died.'

These statements I quote from the work of. Alexander Polyhistor



·         Jacob became the father of Levi, when he was 8[7] (=147-60) years old and lives to the age of 147 years

·         Levi became the father of Kohath, when he was 60 years old which is the same year in which Jacob died after spending 17 years in Egypt

·         Kohath became the father of Amram, when he was 40 years old

·         Amram became the father of Moses, when he was 78 years old

·         Moses led the people out of Egypt, when he was 80 years old

Based on an Equinoctial calendar Levi was 30 years old when Jacob died 8.5 years after he came to Egypt and in the same year Levi had begat Kohath. Amram was born when Kohath was 20 and was 7 years old in the same year Joseph died. Moses was born when Amram was 39 and the Exodus took place when Moses was 40.


Alexander Polyhistor therefore places Jacobs arrival in Egypt in 1299.5 BC, if the Egyptian captivity was 430/4 or 107.5 years long then,


Amram is born in 1299.5 - 8.5 years - 20 years = 1271 BC


Joseph dies in 1299.5 BC - 8.5 years - 20 years - 7 years = 1264 BC.


Moses is born in 1271 BC - 39 years = 1232 BC and the Exodus occurs in 1232 BC - 40 years = 1192 BC which is 1299.5 BC - (430 years of captivity)/4


Eusebius also gives an alternative account in Book 1 of his Chronicon.


Eusebius of Caesarea, Chronicon, Book 1

 Some writers calculate the years in detail, as follows:

·         Abraham became the father of Isaac, when he was 100 years old

·         Isaac became the father of Jacob, when he was 60 years old

·         Jacob became the father of Levi, when he was 86 years old

·         Levi became the father of Kohath, when he was 46 years old

·         Kohath became the father of Amram, when he was 63 years old

·         Amram became the father of Moses, when he was 70 years old

·         Moses led the people out of Egypt, when he was 80 years old


As can be seen, the ages at which Levi, Kohath, and Amram beget their sons are different from the account of Alexander Polyhistor, but the total number of years from the birth of Jacob to the Exodus is the same in both accounts.


Alexander Polyhistor = 80 + 78 + 40 + 60 + 8[7] = 345


Chronicon = 80 + 70 + 63 + 46 + 86 = 345


Based on the proofs given above from which the same date for this event can be calculated by two different methods from two different sets of figures contained in the bible (and related Jewish and Christian sources recording its missing contents) the book of Genesis was obviously written using fractional notation which has subsequently been lost though lack of understanding.


The bible offers us a way to accurately check the distance between these dates as with the Judges and Exodus dates since we are told that the sons of Abram, meaning his family would be afflicted for 400 “years” until the 4th generation.


Bible LXX

Genesis 15:13  And it was said to Abram, Thou shalt surely know that thy seed shall be a sojourner in a land not their won, and they shall enslave them, and afflict them, and humble them four hundred years.

14  And the nation whomsoever they shall serve I will judge; and after this, they shall come forth hither with much {1} property. {1) Lit. baggage}

15  But thou shalt depart to thy fathers in peace, nourished in a good old age.

16  And in the fourth generation they shall return hither, for the sins of the Amorites are not yet filled up, even until now.


If this figure is taken as 200 on the basis that an Equinoctial calendar was being used by the Bibles authors then 200 years counted from the birth of Ishmael would take us to 1401.5-200 = 1201.5 BC which more than the stated 4 generations and too long before the so-called “Exodus” for that to be the event referred to.  If taken as 400 this would take us to 1001.5 BC or past the beginning of the reign of David, but this overlooks the 40 “years” of Saul’s reign since Saul was the first king of Israel not David so that can’t be right.


If the figure is taken as 100 years which would be reasonable if a Seasonal Calendar were being used where the periods between the Solstices and the Equinoxes marked a “year” then we have a date of 1302.5. This date as we shall see is close to the date when Joseph was made Chancellor of Egypt in his 30th “year” or 15 real years after his birth i.e. 1304. This must be the date that the bible means since this is when the Affliction of the sons of Abram came to an end when one of them was put in charge of the entire region. The date looks like it is out by 2.5 years but not if you consider that the bible tells us that the revelation of the Affliction is given to Abram 10 “years” before the birth of Ishmael. Assuming that this is when the Affliction begins then using a seasonal this works out a 2.5 years before Ishmaels birth or in 1405 BC. This now consolidates the dates from Abraham down.


Assuming that prior to the birth of Ishmael the bible uses a Seasonal calendar we can now calculate the birth date and lifetime of Abram’s father Tharrah.


Looking at the table is Tharrah and his father’s years should all be divided by 4 in order to give him a life span that is under 100 years. The Hebrew bibles says Tharrah lived a total of 205 “years”  whereas the LXX tells us that Tharrah’s son Arrahn died and this prompted Tharrah to leave Ur and take Abram and his wife Sari and Lot his Nephew who was still and infant to Charran where he lived a further 205 years. We are not told how old Abram was when this occurred. The Hebrew version tells us that Abram was 75 when he left his father but can this be the same year as the move and is it reliable. The only way to proceed is to set a limit. Lot would have been born at the earliest when Abram was 13. Compare this to Tharrah who was born when his own father was 19.75. When Abram leaves his father he takes Lot with him to Egypt where he is used as a male prostitute. Lot would have had to have been at least 13 when this occurred. A reasonable estimate for the time Abram left Ur is somewhere between the dates of these two events or when he was 19.5 ((26+13)/2).


Using the Book of Jasher the above dating controversy can be resolved without having to rely on statistics. Jasher states that Terah begets Haran and Nahor at the age of 38 and Haran begets Lot at the age of 39 and Sari at the age of 42. Terah then begets Abram at 70 when Haran is 32 and when Abram is 50, Haran is put to death at the age of 82. Terah then leaves for Canaan and stays in the land of Haran when Abram is 55 (27.5). When Abram is 75 he goes into Egypt with Lot who is 7 “years” younger than Abram therefore 68. These ages imply that Terahs years should be taken as equinoxes and divided by two but both Jasher and the Hebrew bible say Terah lived a total of 205 years whereas the LXX says this was additional to the age he was when he moved to Haran or 70+55 = 125 (based on Jasher) which totals 330 years implying these figures should be taken as seasons and divided by four. Dividing by four causes problems as there is not enough time for Lot to have begat his daughters and them to have slept with him and given birth to sons by him but dividing by two means Terah would be over 100 years old when he died.


For the dates for the figures before Nahor the Father of Tharah up to Arphaxad it can be seen from the table that they aught to be divided by 8 to give reasonable ages of birth and death. This corresponds to what Apollodorus describes as an “Everlasting Year” in his Library of Greek Mythology in an account relating to Cadmus to father of Phoenix the eponymous ancestor of the Phoenicians.



Library III 4.2: “To atone for the killing Cadmus served Ares as a labourer for an everlasting year (for a year in those times lasted eight of our own).”


The time in question would have been approximately 1400 BC. To correctly interpret the meaning it must be noted that Apollodorus based his account on Hellanicos who states the this was “one (normal) year”. Therefore the explanatory note made by Apollodorus implies that a year in those times reckoned by the Cadmain/Phoenician calendar imported from Syria-Palestine and Egypt was divided into eight eights.


From Shem to Adam it can be seen that the dates are obviously given in Lunar months rather than years so should be multiplied by 19 and divided by 235 to convert them to years. Arphaxads date of birth is to early. Shem would have been 300 lunar months old when this occurred 200, not 2 “years” after the Flood. Enoch’s age of 365 is the age at which he left to enter the house of God. According to Jasher he dies at the age for 905.


The final Chronology works out thus:




This chronology provides the best fit to the linear regression carried out earlier. The date for the so-called Flood works out as 1614 BC which is close to the Dendrochronological date of 1628 BC for the time of Thera Eruption in the Aegean and close to the date given by Ice Core analysis of about 1610 BC and the Carbon dating of 1650 BC. The concurrence of dates justifies all of the assumptions made.


A second regression should be calculated for the dates Between Abram and Adam but they are not enough reliable events to go by.  We can only fix the dates of Artatama/Artashuimara, and the date of the Thera Eruption to specific generations. Nimrod/Nefrod of the same Generation as Cainan the son of Arphaxad could be Amehotep I 1550 BC known as Nefer-kheferu-re, and Phaleg whose name means division may refer to Egypt being divided in the reign of Tutmoses III 1503, but nothing is certain before Noah. Enoch could correspond to Sheshi the first Hyksos king of the 15th Dynasty, and Adam could be Agum I the Hurrian king of Babylon.


My suspicion is that each generation in this period corresponds to a 19 year Metonic Cycle of exactly 235 lunation’s. This equivalence was discovered by Meton of Athens in about 400 BC but the Babylonians probably already knew about it over a millennium earlier. This is also the cycle used in the modern Hebrew calendar. A linear regression indicates a figure in that region but the error margin is too wide to confirm it.


The Chronology of the Kings of Israil and Ioudia is described on the following page.


Chronology of the Kings of Israil and Ioudia



**Choosing the most actuate text


If one looks at the figures of the ages of the patriarchs at the birth of their son (given in Genesis) it can be seen that the figures given in the LXX (Septuagint) are the most coherent. These figures are all of the order of centuries and agree in the most part with Josephus, whereas the Hebrew and the Samarian figures jump all over the place.


Comparison of Ages at Birth of Son


Greek text


Samaritan text

Hebrew text

From Sem to Flood

















12 after deluge


<not given>








 <not given>

 <not given>


Between Adam and Noah 6 of the Hebrew ages at birth are lower than the Greek by 100 years, whereas 3 are the same as the Greek (within a few units). The Samaritan figures are all 100 less than the Greek except Noe and the flood date.


The figures in the Hebrew text are obviously the last figures to have been written down since in palaces they match the Samaritan figures and in others they match the Greek.


In the Generations between Sem and Thare the Samaritan figures match the Greek figures exactly except for Cainan who is missing in all versions except the Greek. The Hebrew figures are all down by 100 years, and Canain is again missing.

If you take the ages at birth from Adam to Noah as lunar months as they clearly are, the Hebrew and Samaritan versions are unworkable but the Greek figures give reasonable ages, but even these dates may have been tampered with and should not be considered 100% reliable.


The figures that were originally written in the bible obviously included the centuries that are now missing from the Hebrew and Samaritan texts, therefore the Greek text which contains them must be the oldest and the most accurate.


This conclusion is also supported by Eusebius


Eusebius, Chronicon, Book 1

This [the Hebrew] version differs from the Septuagint by a total of 586 years. This is the difference from the Septuagint in the number of years for which each of them lived before their sons were born; apart from Jared, Methuselah and Lamech, who are given the same number of years in both versions. From the agreement with respect to these three, we can deduce that the version which we use is more reliable, because the longer length of years which is assigned to Jared and his descendants in the Hebrew version makes it clear that the years of their predecessors should also be the same as in the Septuagint version. If the later and more recent generations are found, with the addition of the hundred years, to be assigned the same number of years in both the Hebrew and the Septuagint versions, how much likely is it that the previous generations, their forefathers, lived to be older than their descendants? For in the summary of each man's life, the number of years before his son was born, and the number of year that he lived afterwards, added together gives the same total of years in the Hebrew version and the Septuagint translation. It is only the numbers of years before their sons were born which are shorter in the account preserved in the Jewish copies. Therefore we suspect that this was something which the Jews did: that they ventured to compress and shorten the time before these sons were born, in order to encourage early marriages. For if these most ancient of men, who lived such long lives, came quite soon to marriage and fatherhood, as their account declares, who would not want to imitate them and marry early?



It is clear from the oldest version of the Hebrew scriptures, which is preserved by the Samaritans, and which is in agreement with the Septuagint translation, that these men, from the flood down to Abraham, did not have sons until they were over a hundred years old. So who could suppose that their ancestors, who lived for much longer, had fathered children more quickly, rather than after the length of time which is recorded in the Septuagint [translation]? That is what any rational study would suggest; and so we must agree that [the numbers of years in] the Jewish version are incorrect for the whole period from Adam until Abraham, except for the three generations starting with Jared; and the Samaritan version is also incorrect, but only in the period from Adam until the flood, because in the period from the flood until Abraham, it records the same numbers of years as the Septuagint translation.

Indeed, it is absolutely clear that [the dates in] the Hebrew version of the Jews are incorrect. It even suggests that Noah and Abraham were alive at the same time - which is something that is not mentioned in any history. For if, according to the Jewish scriptures, there were 292 years from the flood until Abraham, and Noah lived for another 350 years after the flood, it is obvious that Noah was alive until the 58th year of Abraham. And it is possible to show that the Jewish version is untrustworthy in another way: because it says that the generations before Abraham were about 30 years old when their sons were born, but the generations after Abraham are said to have been much older when they fathered their children.

[p95] Therefore, because it has been definitely established that the Septuagint version was translated from the original, unadulterated Hebrew scriptures, it is reasonable for us to use that version for this chronicle - especially since it is the only version that is approved by the church of Christ, which has spread throughout the whole world, and it is the version that was handed down to us from the beginning by the apostles and disciples of Christ.


Chronology Variations


If the Hebrew figure of 480 “years  from the Exodus to the 4th year of Solomon is used to derive the date of the Exodus a date of 1212 BC can be obtained which is the date of the death of Ramses II. This would move the death of Moses to 1192 BC and the fall of Jericho in 1192 BC which not only is incompatible with Manetho but it would also create a problem with the dating of the reign of Assur-Risilim who it is known from Assyrian texts reigned in about 1150 BC and this is corroborated by the linear regression performed earlier which carries an error margin of about 10 years either way, by moving his reign to 1178 BC which does not correlate with the fact that he was the father of Tiglath-Pilaser I who reigned in 1114 BC.


If Eusebius is to be believed, and there may be problems with the translation and interpretation of what he wrote, there may have been a gap of 30 “years” between the death of Joshua and the start of Assur-Risilim’s reign which might resolve one of these problems.


Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel Book 10

“From the Exodus of Moses to Cyrus, who reigned after the Captivity, there were one thousand two hundred and thirty-seven years. For the remaining years of Moses' life were forty: of Joshua, who became the leader after him, twenty-five years: of the elders who were judges after him, thirty years; and of those included in the Book of Judges, four hundred and ninety years. Of the priests Eli and Samuel, ninety years. Of the kings of the Hebrews, who came next, four hundred and ninety years: and seventy of the Captivity, the last year of which was, as we have said before, the first year of the reign of Cyrus.”

But Eusebius numbers are clearly wrong since Joshua lived 28 “years” after Moses death. Eusebius source may in fact have made a mistake and placed the judges who were appointed for 30 “years” after Moses death after Joshua’s death instead and rounded the “years” Joshua lived after Moses to 30. Eusebius in Book 1 of his Chroncon also disputes that the “30” “years” should be there at all. “Firstly, it must be mentioned that Africanus, who compiled a Chronography in five books, seems to me to have been greatly mistaken in these matters. [p99] By his reckoning, there were 741 years from the exodus of Moses until Solomon and the building of the temple at Jerusalem, but he provides no evidence for most of this. He is wrong, not only because what he says is contrary to the account of the Holy Scriptures, but also because he audaciously adds a total of 100 years on his own authority. He assigns an additional 30 years to the elders after Joshua; and then after Samson, he places 40 years of anarchy, and another 30 years of peace. By inserting these additional years without any proof, he carelessly produces an inflated total of over 740 years in his calculation of the time between Moses and king Solomon.” 

The Bible (AV)

Exodus 18:21  Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens:

22  And let them judge the people at all seasons: and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge: so shall it be easier for thyself, and they shall bear the burden with thee.

23  If thou shalt do this thing, and God command thee so, then thou shalt be able to endure, and all this people shall also go to their place in peace.

24  So Moses hearkened to the voice of his father in law, and did all that he had said.

25  And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.

26  And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves.


If on the other hand Africanus is right then it might be possible to resolve the problem with the reign of Assur-Risilim by assuming that Eli reigns 20 Equinoxes as a Judge and the Judges appointed after the death of Joshua reigned 30 Equinoxes. This moves Assur-Risilim’s reign down to 1148-1146 BC, but leaves Joshua’s death in 1178 BC with a 30 year gap. Unfortunately this date for Joshua’s death is still incompatible with the Linear regression as is the 1213 BC date for the exodus, which are both out by 20 years so such a scenario is highly unlikely. There is no indication in the books of Judges or Joshua or from Josephus of any Judges being appointed for 30 “years” between the death of Joshua and the start of the reign of Assur-Risilim.


The Bible (AV)

Joshua 2:20  And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel; and he said, Because that this people hath transgressed my covenant which I commanded their fathers, and have not hearkened unto my voice;

21  I also will not henceforth drive out any from before them of the nations which Joshua left when he died:

22  That through them I may prove Israel, whether they will keep the way of the LORD to walk therein, as their fathers did keep it, or not.

23  Therefore the LORD left those nations, without driving them out hastily; neither delivered he them into the hand of Joshua. {left: or, suffered}

1 ¶  Now these are the nations which the LORD left, to prove Israel by them, even as many of Israel as had not known all the wars of Canaan;

2  Only that the generations of the children of Israel might know, to teach them war, at the least such as before knew nothing thereof;

3  Namely, five lords of the Philistines, and all the Canaanites, and the Sidonians, and the Hivites that dwelt in mount Lebanon, from mount Baalhermon unto the entering in of Hamath.

4  And they were to prove Israel by them, to know whether they would hearken unto the commandments of the LORD, which he commanded their fathers by the hand of Moses.

5  And the children of Israel dwelt among the Canaanites, Hittites, and Amorites, and Perizzites, and Hivites, and Jebusites:

6  And they took their daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, and served their gods.

7  And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and forgat the LORD their God, and served Baalim and the groves.

8 ¶  Therefore the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hand of Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia: and the children of Israel served Chushanrishathaim eight years. {Mesopotamia: Heb. Aramnaharaim}

9  And when the children of Israel cried unto the LORD, the LORD raised up a deliverer to the children of Israel, who delivered them, even Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother. {deliverer: Heb. saviour}

10  And the Spirit of the LORD came upon him, and he judged Israel, and went out to war: and the LORD delivered Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia into his hand; and his hand prevailed against Chushanrishathaim. {came: Heb. was} {Mesopotamia: Heb. Aram}

11  And the land had rest forty years. And Othniel the son of Kenaz died.


Note that Judges 1:11-15 is a repetition of Joshua 15:15-18 so the opening events of Judges take place while Joshua is still alive.




Apart from the dating of the start of the reign of Solomon which is only accurate to about +/- 4 years, the greatest source of error in reconstructing the chronology of the bible is due to the discrepancies between the Hebrew and Greek versions concerning the years of birth of the patriarchs before Abraham and the number of years from the Exodus to the foundation of the temple of Solomon. If the Hebrew figures are added up as given and corrected so that years are years and not lunar months, seasons or solstices/equinoxes etc. then the date of the Exodus is 1212 BC (counting the fourth year of Solomon as 4 years into his reign, though it could be as little as six months), the date of the Flood is 1605.29 BC and the date of birth of Adam is 1787.69 BC. If the LXX figures are added up as given then the date of the Exodus is 1193 BC, the date of the Flood is 1602.165 BC and the date of birth of Adam is 1783.433 BC. If Josephus figures are used but with the LXX date for the Exodus and Cainan is counted as the son of Arphaxad and father of Sala as in the LXX then the Flood dates to 1613.665 BC and the birth of Adam to 1796.065 BC. If the LXX figures are used and Shem is given an age of 300 lunar months at the birth of Arphaxad instead of 102 semi-seasons (assuming that the “two years” after the flood to the time of his sons birth in the text is a corruption of “two hundred years”) and Josephus figures for the years at begetting for Methusala and Lamech are used (a total difference of 1.13 years) so as to ensure that both are dead at the time of the Flood (whereas if the LXX figures are used Methusala survives the Flood thereby contradicting the narrative) then the Flood occurs in 1613.67 BC and the birth of Adam in 1696.07 BC. The discrepancy between these last two sets of figures is only 0.005 years (less than two days) for both events, and such a close agreement is too much of a coincidence for its significance to be ignored.


If the age of Shem at the birth of Arphaxad is 102/4 years then the difference compared to 300 lunar months is +1.24 years. A possible +/-4 year maximum error could be present in the dating of the start of Solomon’s reign based on Assyrian chronology. A +4 year error exists in the dating of the 4th year of Solomon’s reign. A +17.5 year error exits in the dating of Tharah’s birth if the figures in the Book of Jasher are taken into account. A -11.505 year error exists in the dating of the flood. A +20 year error may or may exist in the dating of the exodus but is highly unlikely with current Assyrian and Egyptian chronology.


Adding all the error margins up and based on Chronology B, the date for the Exodus should be given as 1192 BC +5.7(+20.8)*/-4 years, and the date for the Flood should be given as 1612.67 BC +18.4(+27.2)/-12.2 years, and the birth of Adam should be given as 1796.07 +18.4(+27.2)/-12.2 years, this is assuming that the authors of the bible did not introduce any rounding errors otherwise an error margin of 2 years should be included for every century from the start of the reign of Solomon. *The figures in brackets are the error margin assuming that the Hebrew date for the exodus is valid, but comparison of Assyrian chronology with biblical dates using the Hebrew date shows that this is unlikely since the dates do not correlate like they do with the LXX dating.


Supplementary errors may exist on all the years before Abram which could move his birth up by about 400 years but the fact that the date of the Flood coincides so closely with the date of the Thera Eruption in both the reconstructed arithmetic and the linear regression means that this is very improbable. The identification of Caphtorim with Kawaftaw Amenhotop I more or less settles it. At most Adam could be 60 years earlier since the Flood coinciding with the Thera Erruption places Noah firmly in 1628 BC and regressing the patriarchs between Noah and Abram gives about 20 years per generation. Identification of Jehovah/Ieuo the god of the Phoenicians with Yakubher Meruserenre who ruled Egypt in about 1674 BC would favour a later date since the name of Jehovah was not known until the time of Enos.






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