Reconstruction of the King lists of Israil and Ioudia.


The bible gives us the opportunity to reconstruct the king lists of Israil and Ioudia despite the numerous errors in the figures given in the books of Kings, because for most of the kings both their length of their reign and the year in the reign of the king in opposition to them on their accession to the throne is given.


This is summarised below. The primary source of data is the original text of the Old Testament which is the Greek Septuagint or LXX which predates the Hebrew text.


Comparison of reigns and accession years Israil

King of Israil






40 (Acts)


Iebosth (Ishbosheth)












Ieroboam (Jeroboam)

1 Roboam



Nabat (Nebat/Nadab)

2 Asa



Baasa (Baasha)

3 Asa



Ela (Elah)

26 Asa



Zambri (Zimri)

27 Asa

7 days


Thamni (Tibni)


(estimate 4)


Ambri (Omri/Khumri)

31 Asa


(6 in Trizah)


Ahaab (Ahab/Yahua/Yahweh)

2 Iosafat or 38 Asa



Ohozias (Ahaziah)

17 Iosafat



Ioram (Joram)

2 Ioram or 18 Iosafat



Iou (Jehu)

1 Ohozias



Ioahas (Jehoahaz)

23 Ioas



Ioas (Jehoash)

37(39) Ioas



Ieroboam (Jeroboam)

15 Amessias



Zaharia (Zachariah)

38 Azarias

6 months


Sellum (Shallum)

39 Azarias

1 month


Manaem (Manahem)

39 Azarias



Fakesias (Pekahiah)

50 Azarias



Fakee (Pekah)

52 Azarias



Osie (Hoshea)

20 Iotham or 12 Ahaz




Comparison of reigns and accession years Ioudia

King of Ioudia






40 (Acts)










Roboam (Rhoboam)




Abiou (Abia/Abijah)

18 Ieroboam




24(22) Ieroboam



Iosafat (Josaphat)

11 Ambri  or 4 Ahaab



Ioram (Joram)

5 Ioram



Ohozias (Ozias/Ahaziah)

12 Ioram



Gotholia (Athaliah)

1 Iou



Ioas (Jehoash)

7 Iou



Amessias (Amaziah)

2 Ioas



Azarias (Azariah/Uzziah)

27 Ierobam



Iotham (Joatham/Jotham)

2 Fakee



Ahaz (Achaz)

17 Fakee



Ezekias (Hezekiah)

3 Osie



Manasses (Manasseh)




Amos (Amon)




Iosias (Josias)




Ioahaz (Jehoahaz)


3 months


Ioakim (Joakim/Jehoiakim)




Ioahim (Jechonias)

(-37) Evilmerodach

3 months


Sedikias (Zedekiah)

8-19 Nebuchanesser



Godolias (Gedaliah)


7 months



The first thing that can be seen from the above is that the lengths of reigns of the house Israil and Ioudia do not add up.


Iou king of Israil and Ohozias king of Ioudia are both supposed to have acceded to the throne in the same year, the first of each others reign but the lengths of the reigns of the kings above them add up to different figures.


Reigns of the kings of Israil to Iou = 222 years,

Reigns of the kings of Ioudia to Ohozias = 214 years.


The same is true for the lengths of the kings reigns up to the last year of Osie which is supposed to correspond to the 5th year of Ezikias and is the year in which Shalmaneser V carries away Israil, 722 BC.


Reigns of the kings of Israil form Iou to the end of the 9th year of Osie = 143 years 7 months.

Reigns of the kings of Ioudia form  Ohozias to the end of the 6th year Ezikias 166 years.


Obviously any attempt to calculate a chronology by adding the lengths of the kings reigns together and assigning years to them will give different dates for the reigns of Saul through to Solomon who ruled over the unified kingdom which are out by 15 years.


The other way of reconstructing the king list by used the accession dates of each king relative to the reign of the opposing king also does not add up.


Ieroboam II takes the throne of Israil in the 15th year of Amessias who rules for 29 years in Ioudia. That leaves 14 to 15 years of Amessias during which Ieroboam II rules.


Amessias dies during Ieroboam II’s reign and Azarias takes the throne of Ioudia in Ieroboam II’s 27th year.  But how can this be so unless there is a gap of 12 or 13 years after Amessias death before Azarias takes the throne.


In Azarias 38th year Zaharia takes the throne of Israil after the death of Ieroboam II who rules 41 years, but based on the above that would be 63 to 65 years after Ieroboam II takes the throne or 22 to 24 years after his death, a whole generation without a king.


Further more if contemporary historical events and inscriptions are taken into account the dates just don’t fit. Ahaab is named in Shalmaneser III’s Black Obelisk inscription as having paid tribute in Shalmaneser’s 5th year which is either 855 or 853 BC. Counting the years the kings reigned there are 157 years from the last year of Osie to the year of Ahaab’s death. Addin this to 722 BC this means that Ahaab was dead in 879 BC about two decades before Shalmaneser III took the throne of Assyria (860 or 858 BC). If we take the 22/24 year interregnum into consideration the discrepancy is even further out.


Ieroboam would have reigned 88 years before Ahaabs death date but even without the interregnum that would put the end of Roboams reign in about 950 BC or 5 years before Shesonq I takes the throne of Egypt in 945 BC who the bible tells us raided Jerusalem in Roboams 6th year.


Clearly the figures cannot be taken at face value. In previous pages I have show that an Equinoctial Calendar was being used in Syria-Palestine during the period of the Exodus and most of Genesis, and proven this to be irrefutable by a statistical linear regression. Each biblical “year” was in realty the period from Equinox to Equinox, Autumnal to Vernal or Vernal to Autumnal. Historically the inhabitants of Syria-Palestine are known to have used calendars that began on either of these equinoxes.


If we assume that the Books of Kings like most of Genesis were originally written with dates given using an Equinoctial Calendar (1 Equinoctial “year” = 6 months) and when they were re-copied some time later the calendar was converted to into a civil year (1 Civil year = 365 days), but some Equinoctial figures were missed out and not divided by 2, the numeric errors in the Books of Kings can be shown to disappear.


This is proven by example in the following reconstructed king lists.


Chronology A

Chronology B


The counting system which was used in Syria-Palestine to denote the year in which a king accedes to the throne was the same as that used by the Egyptians. If Ieroboam I becomes king in the first year Robam and Robam reigned in 936 BC then so does Ieroboam. If Abiou acceded to the throne in the 18th year of Ieroboam this is 936-17 = 919 BC. If a king reigns 22 years this could mean anything form 21 years and one month to 22 years and 11 months.


Some errors can be deduced to be present the given figures due to mistakes made in transcribing the text. The corrected figure is given in round brackets in the tables on this page.


Chronologies A and B both assume that the Azarias reigns 26 rather than 56 years. This eliminates the two interregnums described above. Due to this correction the figures referring to the accession of the kings Zaharia,  Shellum, Manames, Fakisias and Fakee relative to the reign of Azarias need to be halved.  The length of Manames reign also needs to be halved from 10 to 5 years.  Chronology A also requires the length of Fakee’s reign to be halved from 20 to 10 years. Chronology B does not, but assumes an error in the length attributed to the reign of Ieroboam II.


Since the bible gives conflicting accession figures for some kings Chronology A uses the figure of 2 Iosafat for the accession of Ahaab and the 2 Ioram figure for the accession of the other Ioram and thus assumes that Ioram the king of Israil reigns 6 not 12 years.  Chronology B uses the 38 Asa date for Ahaab’s accession, and the 18 Iosafat figure for Iorams accessions and this means Omris reign is 6 not 12 years.


According to an Assyrian inscription, Senacherib conquered and enslaved Ezikias in his 3rd campaign. This would have been in 702 if this was Senacheribs 3rd year. The bible construes this defeat as an illness which Ezikias falls under, during which Ezikias asks god for intervention.


2 Kings 20: (LXX)

6  And I will add to thy days fifteen years; and I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of the Assyrians, and I will defend this city for my own sake, and for my servant’s David sake.

7  And he said, Let them take a cake of figs, and lay it upon the ulcer, and he shall be well.

8  And Ezekias said to Esaias, What is the sign that the Lord will heal me, and I shall go up to the house of the Lord on the third day?

9  And Esaias said, This is the sign from the Lord, that the Lord will perform the word which he has spoken, the shadow of the dial shall advance ten degrees: or if it should go back ten degrees this would also be the sign.

10  And Ezekias said, It is a light thing for the shadow to go down ten degrees: nay, but let the shadow return ten degrees backward {1} on the dial. {1) Gr. in the degrees}


The dancing of the shadow back and forth on the face of the sundial is a clear indication that a Solar Eclipse is being alluded to. This effect only occurs just before or after totality. Such an Eclipse is known to have take place in the year 702 BC in the region of Palestine.


-0701 Mar 05  08:32   T   38   0.532  1.064  21.9N  46.7E  58  247  05m32s


This would have reached totality at 11:32 local time.


The Bible also says that at about this time Marodach Baladan was king in Babylon. This would have been Marduk-Apal-Iddin II (restored) 703-702.


According to Herodotus, Senecherib was defeated, ie. Ezikias was cured, because a plague of mice ate his armies equipment.


Herodotus (Histories Book 2)

[2.141.1] The next king, I was told, was a priest of Vulcan, called Sethos. This monarch despised and neglected the warrior class of the Egyptians, as though he did not need their services. Among other indignities which he offered them, he took from them the lands which they had possessed under all the previous kings, consisting of twelve acres of choice land for each warrior. Afterwards, therefore, when Sanacharib, king of the Arabians and Assyrians, marched his vast army into Egypt, the warriors one and all refused to come to his aid. On this the monarch, greatly distressed, entered into the inner sanctuary, and, before the image of the god, bewailed the fate which impended over him. As he wept he fell asleep, and dreamed that the god came and stood at his side, bidding him be of good cheer, and go boldly forth to meet the Arabian host, which would do him no hurt, as he himself would send those who should help him. Sethos, then, relying on the dream, collected such of the Egyptians as were willing to follow him, who were none of them warriors, but traders, artisans, and market people; and with these marched to Pelusium, which commands the entrance into Egypt, and there pitched his camp. As the two armies lay here opposite one another, there came in the night, a multitude of field-mice, which devoured all the quivers and bowstrings of the enemy, and ate the thongs by which they managed their shields. Next morning they commenced their fight, and great multitudes fell, as they had no arms with which to defend themselves. There stands to this day in the temple of Vulcan, a stone statue of Sethos, with a mouse in his hand, and an inscription to this effect- "Look on me, and learn to reverence the gods."


Since it was Pharaoh Sethos (either 25th Dynasty Pharaoh Shabaka 716-702, or Shebitku 702-690) who defeated the Assyrians, then he must also be the “Lord” referred to since he is the one who cured Ezikias illness. The cake which god tells Ezikias to lay upon the ulcer is an allusion to a cake being used to bait the mice referred to by Herodotus to come and infest the Assyrian camp.


Chronology D therefore moves the beginning of the reign of Ezikias to 14 years before the campaign of Senacherib king of Assyria 705-681 as implied in 2 Kings 18:13, and adds another 15/4 years afterwards, which allows Ahaz a full 16 year reign rather than 8 as in Chronology A.


The comparative dates of the kings of Israil, Ioudia, and Assyria are given side by side in Chronology D.


Chronology D


Because we have the date of Sennecheibs campaign it is possible to resolve a contradiction which occurs in the bible narrative of 2 Kings 19:9 which claims that Tharaca (Tirhakah) was king of Ethiopia and agreed to help Hezekiah.


2Kings 19:9 (LXX)

8 ¶ So Rapsakes returned, and found the king of Assyria warring against Lobna: for he heard that he had departed from Lachis.

And he heard concerning Tharaca king of the Ethiopians, saying, Behold, he is come forth to fight with thee: and he returned, and sent messengers to Ezekias, saying,

10  Let not thy God on whom thou trustest encourage thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be delivered into the hands of the king of the Assyrians.

11  Behold, thou hast heard all that the kings of the Assyrians have done in all the lands, to {1} waste them utterly: and shalt thou be delivered? {1) Gr. curse them, q.d. devoted to destruction}

12  Have the gods of the nations at all delivered them, whom my fathers destroyed; both Gozan, and Charran, and Raphis, and the sons of Edem who were in Thaesthen?



Tharaca was the Ethiopian 25th Dynasty Pharaoh Taharqa who reigned in Egypt from 690-664 BC, but this date is after Sennecherib ended his campaign in Syria-Palestine. So either Senneherib launched a second campaign against Hezekiah or Taharqa was General of Shabaka’s forces at the time and is mislabelled as king instead of prince. Since Hezekiah was out of power by 696 BC at the latest, otherwise the reigns of the succeeding kings are far to long, the latter scenario must be true.


Sennecherib insinuates that Taharqa is Hezekiah’s “god” thus the biblical term “god” (the plural Elohim) should be translated as “military” where as “lord” (YHWH) should be translated as “high king”.

Section Headings


Establishing an Accurate Chronology

The kings of Israil and Ioudia

Whose History does the Bible really Describe

Did the Jews and their Religion really Exist

Who created the Bible, How, Why and When



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