The History and Chronology of the Bible


In the following pages I intend to show how the chronology of the bible was worked out and why the bible was originally created not as a religious text but as a politically motivated history of the peoples of Palestine intended to create a national identity to counter that of the Greeks in the Hellenistic era. I will also show that the history depicted in the bible and that of ancient Greece and Europe begin at the same time and are based on the same events.


The first objective shall be to ascertain if the bible can be used as valid source of historical information, such as dates, the names of kings, and descriptions major events relating to the region of Syria-Palestine. This can be achieved if the biblical account can to be corroborated by other sources.


Section Headings


Establishing an Accurate Chronology

The kings of Israil and Ioudia

Whose History does the Bible really Describe

Did the Jews and their Religion really Exist

Who created the Bible, How, Why and When

Related Links


Material for this analysis includes the histories of Herodotus and Tacitus, the records of the Egyptians as translated by Manetho et al, those of the Tyrians as translated by Menander, and other extant records of the Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Hittites, Assyrians, Romans and Greeks.


The “Jews”, “Israelites” and “Hebrews” will initially be treated as if they are completely unknown peoples except for the bibles references to them. This is justified since no extra biblical historians make any mention of any such entities until the end of the Hellenistic period. Our aim will be to decide who in reality the “Jews”, “Israelites” and “Hebrews” actually were and if their decedents are still extant today.


Biblical King Lists and Chronologies


Comparative King lists

Adam to Agrippa (1800 BC-70 AD)

Patriarchs & Judges

Variations (1800 BC-585 BC)

Israil, Ioudia, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Tyre

Biblical Prophets (1300 BC-338 BC)

Babylonian to Hellenistic & Roman Period

Edom and Moab (1400 BC-800 BC)


Aram/Syria (1050 BC-732 BC)


Biblical Timeline (1614 BC-976 BC)



Ancient Greek King Lists and Chronologies


Comparative King lists

Cyprus (1450 BC-300 BC)

Main Greek City States

Argolis and Sparta (1660 BC-645 BC)

All Greek City States, Asia and Egypt

Ancient Greece (2100 BC-30 BC)


Jerome’s Chronicon, Greek history (2075-300 BC)



Other King Lists and Chronologies


Comparative King lists

Media and Lydia (1740 BC-530 BC)

Manethos Egyptian king list

Tyre (2250 BC-312 BC)


Jerome’s Chronicon, Full text (2075 BC-310 AD)


The Travels of Noah into Europe (2317-1255 BC)


The Travels of Noah into Europe (HTML)



The chronology I have reconstructed here is corroborated by 3 independent methods; historical references, statistical calculations, and numerical consistency. It tallies up precisely with known historical dates and events and has an average margin of error of +/- 3 years. It follows the chronology the ancient historian Manetho used as his reference when he wrote his histories of Egypt, and was the chronology that was being widely used after Herodotus wrote his Histories. This is the basis of the standard Egyptian chronology that was being used up until the end of the last millennium, and derives from the chronology constructed by Apollonius the Chief Librarian of the Library of Alexandria, which Diodorus also uses to date the Trojan War and other events in his Libraries of Greek and Roman history. The use of Apollonius chronology by the Bible means that it is impossible for the Bible to have been written any time before 262 BC since Apollonius chronology was not extant until that time and the bibles dates are all intrinsically locked to it, as I shall show. This chronology places the end of reign of Ramses II in 1212 BC, whereas other chronologies argue that the end of Ramases reign should be placed in 1237 BC.



Revision 5.2 20/05/2009

© Argyros George Argyrou


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